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A006960 Reverse and Add! sequence starting with 196.
(Formerly M5410)
46
196, 887, 1675, 7436, 13783, 52514, 94039, 187088, 1067869, 10755470, 18211171, 35322452, 60744805, 111589511, 227574622, 454050344, 897100798, 1794102596, 8746117567, 16403234045, 70446464506, 130992928913, 450822227944, 900544455998, 1800098901007, 8801197801088, 17602285712176 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,1

COMMENTS

196 is conjectured to be the smallest initial term which does not lead to a palindrome. John Walker, Tim Irvin and others have extended the trajectory of 196 to millions of digits without finding a palindrome.

From A.H.M. Smeets, Jan 31 2019: (Start)

Palindromes for a(9)/2, a(14)/2 and a(20)/2.

Observed:  It seems that most, but not all, Lychrel numbers (seeds given in A063048) have a trajectory term that, divided by 2, becomes palindromic. Note that 196 is the first Lychrel number (A063048(1)). (End)

Observed: On average, 0.414 digits are gained by each step of the reverse and add procedure; i.e., 2.416 steps are needed on average to gain a factor of 10. This holds for any trajectory of reverse and add for decimal number representation. - A.H.M. Smeets, Feb 03 2019

REFERENCES

J.-M. De Koninck, Ces nombres qui nous fascinent, Entry 196, p. 58, Ellipses, Paris 2008.

F. Gruenberger, Computer Recreations, Scientific American, 250 (No. 4, 1984), 19-26.

D. H. Lehmer, "Sujets d'étude. No. 74," Sphinx (Bruxelles), 8 (1938), 12-13. (This is the currently earliest known reference to the 196 Problem). -  James D. Klein, Apr 09 2012.

Daniel Lignon, Dictionnaire de (presque) tous les nombres entiers, Ellipses, Paris, 2012, 702 pages. See Entry 196.

Clifford A. Pickover, A Passion for Mathematics, Wiley, 2005; see p. 70.

Popular Computing (Calabasas, CA), The 196 Problem, Vol. 3 (No. 30, Sep 1975), pages PC30-6 to PC30-9.

N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).

LINKS

T. D. Noe and Michael Lee, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..2390 (T. D. Noe supplied terms 0 to 200)

Patrick De Geest, Some thematic websources

Jason Doucette, World Records

Martianus Frederic Ezerman, Bertrand Meyer and Patrick Sole, On Polynomial Pairs of Integers, arXiv:1210.7593 [math.NT], 2012. - From N. J. A. Sloane, Nov 08 2012

Felix Fröhlich, C++ program for this sequence

R. K. Guy, What's left?, Math Horizons, Vol. 5, No. 4 (April 1998), pp. 5-7.

Tim Irvin, About Two Months of Computing, or An Addendum to Mr. Walker's Three Years of Computing

Madras Math's Amazing Number Facts, The Ultimate Palindrome

I. Peter, More trajectories

Wade VanLandingham, 196 and Other Lychrel Numbers

John Walker, Three Years Of Computing: Final Report On The Palindrome Quest

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, 196-Algorithm.

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Palindromic Number Conjecture.

Index entries for sequences related to Reverse and Add!

FORMULA

a(n+1) = A056964(a(n)). - A.H.M. Smeets, Jan 27 2019

EXAMPLE

From M. F. Hasler, Apr 13 2019: (Start)

Start with 196 = a(0), then:

A056964(196) = 196 + 691 = 887 = a(1); then:

A056964(887) = 887 + 788 = 1675 = a(2); then:

A056964(1675) = 1675 + 5761 = 7436 = a(3); then:

A056964(7436) = 7436 + 6347 = 13783 = a(4); then:

A056964(13783) = 13783 + 38731 = 52514 = a(5); etc. (End)

MAPLE

a:= proc(n) option remember; `if`(n=0, 196, (h-> h+ (s->

      parse(cat(s[-i]$i=1..length(s))))(""||h))(a(n-1)))

    end:

seq(a(n), n=0..40);  # Alois P. Heinz, Jul 25 2014

MATHEMATICA

a = {196}; For[i = 2, i < 26, i++, a = Append[a, a[[i - 1]] + ToExpression[ StringReverse[ToString[a[[i - 1]]]]]]]; a

NestList[#+FromDigits[Reverse[IntegerDigits[#]]]&, 196, 25] (* Harvey P. Dale, Jun 05 2011 *)

NestList[#+IntegerReverse[#]&, 196, 25] (* Requires Mathematica version 10 or later *) (* Harvey P. Dale, Jan 04 2019 *)

PROG

(Haskell)

a006960 n = a006960_list !! n

a006960_list = iterate a056964 196 -- Reinhard Zumkeller, Sep 22 2011

(PARI) A006960_vec(N=99)=vector(N, i, N=if(i>1, A056964(N), 196)) \\ M. F. Hasler, Apr 13 2019

CROSSREFS

Cf. A023108, A023109, A033665, A016016, A056964, A004086.

Sequence in context: A088753 A063048 A306232 * A014798 A251308 A251301

Adjacent sequences:  A006957 A006958 A006959 * A006961 A006962 A006963

KEYWORD

nonn,base,nice,easy

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane, Simon Plouffe

EXTENSIONS

More terms from Vit Planocka (planocka(AT)mistral.cz), Sep 28 2002

STATUS

approved

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Last modified April 17 15:33 EDT 2021. Contains 343063 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)