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A002162 Decimal expansion of the natural logarithm of 2.
(Formerly M4074 N1689)
198
6, 9, 3, 1, 4, 7, 1, 8, 0, 5, 5, 9, 9, 4, 5, 3, 0, 9, 4, 1, 7, 2, 3, 2, 1, 2, 1, 4, 5, 8, 1, 7, 6, 5, 6, 8, 0, 7, 5, 5, 0, 0, 1, 3, 4, 3, 6, 0, 2, 5, 5, 2, 5, 4, 1, 2, 0, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 9, 4, 9, 3, 3, 9, 3, 6, 2, 1, 9, 6, 9, 6, 9, 4, 7, 1, 5, 6, 0, 5, 8, 6, 3, 3, 2, 6, 9, 9, 6, 4, 1, 8, 6, 8, 7 (list; constant; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
0,1
COMMENTS
Newton calculated the first 16 terms of this sequence.
Area bounded by y = tan x, y = cot x, y = 0. - Clark Kimberling, Jun 26 2020
REFERENCES
G. Boros and V. H. Moll, Irresistible Integrals: Symbolics, Analysis and Experiments in the Evaluation of Integrals, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
S. R. Finch, Mathematical Constants, Cambridge, 2003, Sections 1.3.3 and 6.2.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).
LINKS
D. H. Bailey and J. M. Borwein, Experimental Mathematics: Examples, Methods and Implications, Notices of the AMS, May 2005, Volume 52, Issue 5.
J. M. Borwein, P. B. Borwein and K. Dilcher, Pi, Euler numbers and asymptotic expansions, Amer. Math. Monthly, 96 (1989), 681-687.
Paul Cooijmans, Odds.
X. Gourdon and P. Sebah, The logarithm constant:log(2)
M. Kontsevich and D. Zagier, Periods, pp. 4-5.
Mathematical Reflections, Solution to Problem U376, Issue 4, 2016, p 17.
Michael Penn, an alternating floor sum., YouTube video, 2020.
S. Ramanujan, Question 260, J. Ind. Math. Soc., III, p. 43.
Albert Stadler, Problem 3567, Crux Mathematicorum, Vol. 36 (Oct. 2010), p. 396; Oliver Geupel, Solution, Crux Mathematicorum, Vol. 37 (Oct. 2011), pp. 400-401.
D. W. Sweeney, On the computation of Euler's constant, Math. Comp., 17 (1963), 170-178.
Horace S. Uhler, Recalculation and extension of the modulus and of the logarithms of 2, 3, 5, 7 and 17, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 26, (1940). 205-212.
FORMULA
log(2) = Sum_{k>=1} 1/(k*2^k) = Sum_{j>=1} (-1)^(j+1)/j.
log(2) = Integral_{t=0..1} dt/(1+t).
log(2) = (2/3) * (1 + Sum_{k>=1} 2/((4*k)^3-4*k)) (Ramanujan).
log(2) = 4*Sum_{k>=0} (3-2*sqrt(2))^(2*k+1)/(2*k+1) (Y. Luke). - R. J. Mathar, Jul 13 2006
log(2) = 1 - (1/2)*Sum_{k>=1} 1/(k*(2*k+1)). - Jaume Oliver Lafont, Jan 06 2009, Jan 08 2009
log(2) = 4*Sum_{k>=0} 1/((4*k+1)*(4*k+2)*(4*k+3)). - Jaume Oliver Lafont, Jan 08 2009
log(2) = 7/12 + 24*Sum_{k>=1} 1/(A052787(k+4)*A000079(k)). - R. J. Mathar, Jan 23 2009
From Alexander R. Povolotsky, Jul 04 2009: (Start)
log(2) = (1/4)*(3 - Sum_{n>=1} 1/(n*(n+1)*(2*n+1))).
log(2) = (230166911/9240 - Sum_{k>=1} (1/2)^k*(11/k + 10/(k+1) + 9/(k+2) + 8/(k+3) + 7/(k+4) + 6/(k+5) - 6/(k+7) - 7/(k+8) - 8/(k+9) - 9/(k+10) - 10/(k+11)))/35917. (End)
log(2) = A052882/A000670. - Mats Granvik, Aug 10 2009
From log(1-x-x^2) at x=1/2, log(2) = (1/2)*Sum_{k>=1} L(k)/(k*2^k), where L(n) is the n-th Lucas number (A000032). - Jaume Oliver Lafont, Oct 24 2009
log(2) = Sum_{k>=1} 1/(cos(k*Pi/3)*k*2^k) (cf. A176900). - Jaume Oliver Lafont, Apr 29 2010
log(2) = (Sum_{n>=1} 1/(n^2*(n+1)^2*(2*n+1)) + 11)/16. - Alexander R. Povolotsky, Jan 13 2011
log(2) = (Sum_{n>=1} (2*n+1)/(Sum_{k=1..n} k^2)^2))+396)/576. - Alexander R. Povolotsky, Jan 14 2011
From Alexander R. Povolotsky, Dec 16 2008: (Start)
log(2) = 105*(Sum_{n>=1} 1/(2*n*(2*n+1)*(2*n+3)*(2*n+5)*(2*n+7)))-319/44100).
log(2) = 319/420 - (3/2)*Sum_{n>=1} 1/(6*n^2+39*n+63)). (End)
log(2) = Sum_{k>=1} A191907(2,k)/k. - Mats Granvik, Jun 19 2011
log(2) = Integral_{x=0..oo} 1/(1 + e^x) dx. - Jean-François Alcover, Mar 21 2013
log(2) = lim_{s->1} zeta(s)*(1-1/2^(s-1)). - Mats Granvik, Jun 18 2013
From Peter Bala, Dec 10 2013: (Start)
log(2) = 2*Sum_{n>=1} 1/( n*A008288(n-1,n-1)*A008288(n,n) ), a result due to Burnside.
log(2) = (1/3)*Sum_{n >= 0} (5*n+4)/( (3*n+1)*(3*n+2)*C(3*n,n) )*(1/2)^n = (1/12)*Sum_{n >= 0} (28*n+17)/( (3*n+1)*(3*n+2)*C(3*n,n) )*(-1/4)^n.
log(2) = (3/16)*Sum_{n >= 0} (14*n+11)/( (4*n+1)*(4*n+3)*C(4*n,2*n) )*(1/4)^n = (1/12)*Sum_{n >= 0} (34*n+25)/( (4*n+1)*(4*n+3)*C(4*n,2*n) )*(-1/18)^n. For more series of this type see the Bala link.
See A142979 for series acceleration formulas for log(2) obtained from the Mercator series log(2) = Sum_{n >= 1} (-1)^(n+1)/n. See A142992 for series for log(2) related to the root lattice C_n. (End)
log(2) = lim_{n->oo} Sum_{k=2^n..2^(n+1)-1} 1/k. - Richard R. Forberg, Aug 16 2014
From Peter Bala, Feb 03: (Start)
log(2) = (2/3)*Sum_{k >= 0} 1/((2*k + 1)*9^k).
Define a pair of integer sequences A(n) = 9^n*(2*n + 1)!/n! and B(n) = A(n)*Sum_{k = 0..n} 1/((2*k + 1)*9^k). Both satisfy the same second-order recurrence equation u(n) = (40*n + 16)*u(n-1) - 36*(2*n - 1)^2*u(n-2). From this observation we obtain the continued fraction expansion log(2) = (2/3)*(1 + 2/(54 - 36*3^2/(96 - 36*5^2/(136 - ... - 36*(2*n - 1)^2/((40*n + 16) - ... ))))). Cf. A002391, A073000 and A105531 for similar expansions. (End)
log(2) = Sum_{n>=1} (Zeta(2*n)-1)/n. - Vaclav Kotesovec, Dec 11 2015
From Peter Bala, Oct 30 2016: (Start)
Asymptotic expansions:
for N even, log(2) - Sum_{k = 1..N/2} (-1)^(k-1)/k ~ (-1)^(N/2)*(1/N - 1/N^2 + 2/N^4 - 16/N^6 + 272/N^8 - ...), where the sequence of unsigned coefficients [1, 1, 2, 16, 272, ...] is A000182 with an extra initial term of 1. See Borwein et al., Theorem 1 (b);
for N odd, log(2) - Sum_{k = 1..(N-1)/2} (-1)^(k-1)/k ~ (-1)^((N-1)/2)*(1/N - 1/N^3 + 5/N^5 - 61/N^7 + 1385/N^9 - ...), by Borwein et al., Lemma 2 with f(x) := 1/(x + 1/2), h := 1/2 and then set x = (N - 1)/2, where the sequence of unsigned coefficients [1, 1, 5, 61, 1385, ...] is A000364. (End)
log(2) = lim_{n->oo} Sum_{k=1..n} sin(1/(n+k)). See Mathematical Reflections link. - Michel Marcus, Jan 07 2017
log(2) = Sum_{n>=1} (A006519(n) / ( (1+2^A006519(n)) * A000265(n) * (1 + A000265(n))). - Nicolas Nagel, Mar 19 2018
From Amiram Eldar, Jul 02 2020: (Start)
Equals Sum_{k>=2} zeta(k)/2^k.
Equals -Sum_{k>=2} log(1 - 1/k^2).
Equals Sum_{k>=1} 1/A002939(k).
Equals Integral_{x=0..Pi/3} tan(x) dx. (End)
log(2) = Integral_{x=0..Pi/2} (sec(x) - tan(x)) dx. - Clark Kimberling, Jul 08 2020
From Peter Bala, Nov 14 2020: (Start)
log(2) = Integral_{x = 0..1} (x - 1)/log(x) dx (Boros and Moll, p. 97).
log(2) = (1/2)*Integral_{x = 0..1} (x + 2)*(x - 1)^2/log(x)^2 dx.
log(2) = (1/4)*Integral_{x = 0..1} (x^2 + 3*x + 4)*(x - 1)^3/log(x)^3 dx. (End)
log(2) = 2*arcsinh(sqrt(2)/4) = 2*sqrt(2)*Sum_{n >= 0} (-1)^n*C(2*n,n)/ ((8*n+4)*32^n) = 3*Sum_{n >= 0} (-1)^n/((8*n+4)*(2^n)*C(2*n,n)). - Peter Bala, Jan 14 2022
log(2) = Integral_{x=0..oo} ( e^(-x) * (1-e^(-2x)) * (1-e^(-4x)) * (1-e^(-6x)) ) / ( x * (1-e^(-14x)) ) dx (see Crux Mathematicorum link). - Bernard Schott, Jul 11 2022
From Peter Bala, Oct 22 2023: (Start)
log(2) = 23/32 + 2!^3/16 * Sum_{n >= 1} (-1)^n * (n + 1)/(n*(n + 1)*(n + 2))^2 = 707/1024 - 4!^3/(16^2 * 2!^2) * Sum_{n >= 1} (-1)^n * (n + 2)/(n*(n + 1)*(n + 2)*(n + 3)*(n + 4))^2 = 42611/61440 + 6!^3/(16^3 * 3!^2) * Sum_{n >= 1} (-1)^n * (n + 3)/(n*(n + 1)*(n + 2)*(n + 3)*(n + 4)*(n + 5)*(n + 6))^2.
More generally, it appears that for k >= 0, log(2) = c(k) + (2*k)!^3/(16^k * k!^2) * Sum_{n >= 1} (-1)^(n+k+1) * (n + k)/(n*(n + 1)*...*(n + 2*k))^2 , where c(k) is a rational approximation to log(2). The first few values of c(k) are [0, 23/32, 707/1024, 42611/61440, 38154331/55050240, 76317139/110100480, 26863086823/38755368960, ...].
Let P(n,k) = n*(n + 1)*...*(n + k).
Conjecture: for k >= 0 and r even with r - 1 <= k, the series Sum_{n >= 1} (-1)^n * (d/dn)^r (P(n,k)) / (P(n,k)^2 = A(r,k)*log(2) + B(r,k), where A(r,k) and B(r,k) are both rational numbers. (End)
From Peter Bala, Nov 13 2023: (Start)
log(2) = 5/8 + (1/8)*Sum_{k >= 1} (-1)^(k+1) * (2*k + 1)^2 / ( k*(k + 1) )^4
= 257/384 + (3!^5/2^9)*Sum_{k >= 1} (-1)^(k+1) * (2*k + 1)*(2*k + 3)^2*(2*k + 5) / ( k*(k + 1)*(k + 2)*(k + 3) )^4
= 267515/393216 + (5!^5/2^19)*Sum_{k >= 1} (-1)^(k+1) * (2*k + 1)*(2*k + 3)*(2*k + 5)^2*(2*k + 7)*(2*k + 9) / ( k*(k + 1)*(k + 2)*(k + 3)*(k + 4)*(k + 5) )^4
log(2) = 3/4 - 1/128 * Sum_{k >= 0} (-1/16)^k * (10*k + 12)*binomial(2*k+2,k+1)/ ((k + 1)*(2*k + 3)). The terms of the series are O(1/(k^(3/2)*4^n)). (End)
log(2) = eta(1) is a period, where eta(x) is the Dirichlet eta function. - Andrea Pinos, Mar 19 2024
EXAMPLE
0.693147180559945309417232121458176568075500134360255254120680009493393...
MATHEMATICA
RealDigits[N[Log[2], 200]][[1]] (* Vladimir Joseph Stephan Orlovsky, Feb 21 2011 *)
RealDigits[Log[2], 10, 120][[1]] (* Harvey P. Dale, Jan 25 2024 *)
PROG
(PARI) { default(realprecision, 20080); x=10*log(2); for (n=0, 20000, d=floor(x); x=(x-d)*10; write("b002162.txt", n, " ", d)); } \\ Harry J. Smith, Apr 21 2009
CROSSREFS
Cf. A016730 (continued fraction), A002939, A008288, A142979, A142992.
Sequence in context: A129938 A022698 A013707 * A257945 A271526 A072365
KEYWORD
nonn,cons
AUTHOR
STATUS
approved

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Last modified May 19 04:28 EDT 2024. Contains 372666 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)