

A197654


Triangle by rows T(n,k), showing the number of meanders with length 5(n+1) and containing 5(k+1) L's and 5(nk) R's, where L's and R's denote arcs of equal length and a central angle of 72 degrees which are positively or negatively oriented.


8



1, 5, 1, 31, 62, 1, 121, 1215, 363, 1, 341, 13504, 20256, 1364, 1, 781, 96875, 500000, 193750, 3905, 1, 1555, 501066, 7321875, 9762500, 1252665, 9330, 1, 2801, 2033647, 72656661, 262609375, 121094435, 6100941, 19607, 1
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OFFSET

0,2


COMMENTS

Definition of a meander:
A binary curve C is a triple (m, S, dir) such that:
(a) S is a list with values in {L,R} which starts with an L,
(b) dir is a list of m different values, each value of S being allocated a value of dir,
(c) consecutive L's increment the index of dir,
(d) consecutive R's decrement the index of dir,
(e) the integer m>0 divides the length of S.
Then C is a meander if each value of dir occurs length(S)/m times.
Let T(m,n,k) = number of meanders (m, S, dir) in which S contains m(k+1) L's and m(nk) R's, so that length(S) = m(n+1).
For this sequence, m = 5, T(n,k) = T(5,n,k).
The values in the triangle were proved by brute force for 0 <= n <= 6. The formulas have not yet been proved in general.
The number triangle can be calculated recursively by the number triangles and A007318, A103371, A194595 and A197653. The first column seems to be A053699. The diagonal right hand is A000012. The diagonal with k = n1 seems to be A152031 and to start with the second number of A152031. Row sums are in A198257.
The conjectured formulas are confirmed by dynamic programming for 0 <= n <= 29.  Susanne Wienand, Jul 01 2015


LINKS

Alois P. Heinz, Rows n = 0..140, flattened
Peter Luschny, Meanders and walks on the circle.
Susanne Wienand, Example of a meander counted by A197654


FORMULA

Recursive formula (conjectured):
T(n,k) = T(5,n,k) = T(1,n,k)^5 + T(1,n,k)*T(4,n,n1k), 0 <= k < n
T(5,n,n) = 1 k = n
T(4,n,k) = T(1,n,k)^4 + T(1,n,k) * T(3,n,n1k), 0 <= k < n
T(4,n,n) = 1 k = n
T(3,n,k) = T(1,n,k)^3 + T(1,n,k) * T(2,n,n1k), 0 <= k < n
T(3,n,n) = 1 k = n
T(2,n,k) = T(1,n,k)^2 + T(1,n,k) * T(1,n,n1k), 0<= k < n
T(2,n,n) = 1 k = n
T(4,n,k) = A197653
T(3,n,k) = A194595
T(2,n,k) = A103371
T(1,n,k) = A007318 (Pascal's Triangle)
Closed formula (conjectured): T(n,n) = 1, k = n
T(n,k) = A + B + C + D + E, k < n
A = (C(n,k))^5
B = (C(n,k))^4 * C(n,n1k)
C = (C(n,k))^3 *(C(n,n1k))^2
D = (C(n,k))^2 *(C(n,n1k))^3
E = C(n,k) *(C(n,n1k))^4 [Susanne Wienand]
Let S(n,k) = binomial(2*n,n)^(k+1)*((n+1)^(k+1)n^(k+1))/(n+1)^k. Then T(2*n,n) = S(n,4). [Peter Luschny, Oct 20 2011]
T(n,k) = A198064(n+1,k+1)C(n,k)^5/(k+1)^4. [Peter Luschny, Oct 29 2011]
T(n,k) = h(n,k)*binomial(n,k)^5, where h(n,k) = (1+k)*(1((nk)/(1+k))^5)/(1+2*kn) if 1+2*kn <> 0 else h(n,k) = 5. [Peter Luschny, Nov 24 2011]


EXAMPLE

For n = 5 and k = 2, T(n,k) = 500000
Example for recursive formula:
T(1,5,2) = 10
T(4,5,512) = T(4,5,2) = 40000
T(5,5,2) = 10^5 + 10*40000 = 500000
Example for closed formula:
T(5,2) = A + B + C + D + E
A = 10^5
B = 10^4 * 10
C = 10^3 * 10^2
D = 10^2 * 10^3
E = 10 * 10^4
T(5,2) = 5 * 10^5 = 500000
Some examples of list S and allocated values of dir if n = 5 and k = 2:
Length(S) = (5+1)*5 = 30 and S contains (2+1)*5 = 15 Ls.
S: L,L,L,L,L,L,L,L,L,L,L,L,L,L,L,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R
dir: 1,2,3,4,0,1,2,3,4,0,1,2,3,4,0,0,4,3,2,1,0,4,3,2,1,0,4,3,2,1
S: L,L,L,L,L,L,L,R,R,L,L,R,R,R,L,R,R,R,L,R,L,L,L,R,R,L,R,R,R,R
dir: 1,2,3,4,0,1,2,2,1,1,2,2,1,0,0,0,4,3,3,3,3,4,0,0,4,4,4,3,2,1
S: L,L,L,L,L,R,L,L,L,L,L,R,L,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,L,L,L,L,R,R,R
dir: 1,2,3,4,0,0,0,1,2,3,4,4,4,4,3,2,1,0,4,3,2,1,0,0,1,2,3,3,2,1
Each value of dir occurs 30/5 = 6 times.
The triangle begins:
1,
5, 1,
31, 62, 1,
121, 1215, 363, 1,
341, 13504, 20256, 1364, 1,
781, 96875, 500000, 193750, 3905, 1,
...


MAPLE

A197654 := (n, k)>(k^4+2*k^3*(1n)+2*k^2*(2+n+2*n^2)+k*(3+nn^23*n^3)+ n^4+n^3+n^2+n+1)*binomial(n, k)^5/(1+k)^4;
seq(print(seq(A197654(n, k), k=0..n)), n=0..7); # Peter Luschny, Oct 20 2011


MATHEMATICA

T[n_, k_] := (k^4 + 2*k^3*(1n) + 2*k^2*(2+n+2*n^2) + k*(3+nn^23*n^3) + n^4+n^3+n^2+n+1)*Binomial[n, k]^5/(1+k)^4; Table[T[n, k], {n, 0, 7}, {k, 0, n}] // Flatten (* JeanFrançois Alcover, Feb 20 2017, after Peter Luschny *)


PROG

(C#) static int[] A197654_row(int r) { return GenBinomial(r, 5); } // The function GenBinomial(r, s) is defined in A194595.
// This C#program causes numerical overflow for results larger than 2147483647.  Susanne Wienand, Jul 01 2015
(Sage)
def S(N, n, k) : return binomial(n, k)^(N+1)*sum(sum((1)^(Nj+i)*binomial(Ni, j)*((n+1)/(k+1))^j for i in (0..N) for j in (0..N)))
def A197654(n, k) : return S(4, n, k)
for n in (0..5) : print [A197654(n, k) for k in (0..n)] ## Peter Luschny, Oct 24 2011
(PARI) A197654(n, k) = {if(n ==1+2*k, 5, (1+k)*(1((nk)/(1+k))^5)/(1+2*kn))*binomial(n, k)^5} \\ Peter Luschny, Nov 24 2011


CROSSREFS

Cf. A000012, A007318, A053699, A103371, A152031, A194595, A197653, A197655, A198257.
Sequence in context: A049353 A165226 A027759 * A296043 A066833 A039813
Adjacent sequences: A197651 A197652 A197653 * A197655 A197656 A197657


KEYWORD

nonn,tabl


AUTHOR

Susanne Wienand, Oct 19 2011


STATUS

approved



