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 A094960 Positive integers k such that the derivative of the k-th Bernoulli polynomial B(k,x) contains only integer coefficients. 9
 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 28, 30, 36, 60 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
 OFFSET 1,2 COMMENTS From Max Alekseyev, Dec 08 2011: (Start) There are no other terms below 10^9. k belongs to this sequence if k*binomial(k-1,m)*Bernoulli(m) is an integer for each m in 0..k-1. (End) From Max Alekseyev, Jun 04 2012: (Start) If for a prime p >= 3, k ends with base-p digits a,b with a+b >= p, then for m = (a+1)*(p-1), the number k*binomial(k-1,m)*Bernoulli(m) is not an integer (it contains p in the denominator). For p=3, this implies that k == 5, 7, or 8 (mod 9) are not in this sequence; for p=5, this implies that k == 9, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, or 24 (mod 25) are not in this sequence; and so on. Conjecture: for every integer k > 78, there exists a prime p >= 3 such that the sum of last two base-p digits of k is at least p. This conjecture would imply that this sequence is finite and 60 is the last term. (End) The conjecture is true for all k such that k+1 is not a prime, a power of 2, or a Giuga number (A007850). In this case, there exists a prime p >= 3 such that the base-p representation of k ends in a,p-1 with a > 0. - Max Alekseyev, Feb 16 2021 The sequence is finite and is a subsequence of A366169. The terms are those numbers k where A324370(k) = 1. It remains to show that 60 is the last term. This is very likely, since the terms depend on the estimation of a product of primes satisfying certain p-adic conditions that is connected with A324370. A proven asymptotic formula related to that product implies that this sequence is finite. See Kellner 2017, 2023, and BLMS 2018. - Bernd C. Kellner, Oct 02 2023 LINKS Table of n, a(n) for n=1..10. Olivier Bordellès, Florian Luca, Pieter Moree, and Igor E. Shparlinski, Denominators of Bernoulli polynomials, Mathematika 64 (2018), 519-541. Bernd C. Kellner, On a product of certain primes, J. Number Theory, 179 (2017), 126-141; arXiv:1705.04303 [math.NT], 2017. Bernd C. Kellner, On the finiteness of Bernoulli polynomials whose derivative has only integral coefficients, J. Integer Seq. 27 (2024), Article 24.2.8, 11 pp.; arXiv:2310.01325 [math.NT], 2023. Bernd C. Kellner and Jonathan Sondow, Power-Sum Denominators, Amer. Math. Monthly, 124 (2017), 695-709; arXiv:1705.03857 [math.NT], 2017. Bernd C. Kellner and Jonathan Sondow, The denominators of power sums of arithmetic progressions, Integers 18 (2018), #A95, 17 pp.; arXiv:1705.05331 [math.NT], 2017. Bernd C. Kellner and Jonathan Sondow, On Carmichael and polygonal numbers, Bernoulli polynomials, and sums of base-p digits, Integers 21 (2021), #A52, 21 pp.; arXiv:1902.10672 [math.NT], 2019. FORMULA k is a term if A324370(k) = 1. - Bernd C. Kellner, Oct 02 2023 k is a term <=> 0 = Sum_{j=0..k-1} k*binomial(k - 1, j) mod Clausen(j), where Clausen(n) = A160014(n, 1). - Peter Luschny, Oct 04 2023 EXAMPLE B(6,x) = x^6 - 3*x^5 + (5/2)*x^4 - (1/2)*x^2 + 1/42 so B'(6,x) contains only integer coefficients and 6 is in the sequence. MAPLE p := n -> if denom(diff(bernoulli(n, x), x)) = 1 then n else fi: seq(p(n), n=1..100); # Emeric Deutsch MATHEMATICA (* From Bernd C. Kellner, Oct 02 2023. (Start) *) (* k-th derivative of BP: *) k = 1; Select[Range[1000], Denominator[Together[D[BernoulliB[#, x], {x, k}]]] == 1&] (* Exact denominator formula: *) SD[n_, p_] := If[n < 1 || p < 2, 0, Plus@@IntegerDigits[n, p]]; DBP[n_, k_] := Module[{m = n-k+1, fac = FactorialPower[n, k]}, If[n < 1 || k < 1 || n <= k, Return[1]]; Times@@Select[Prime[Range[PrimePi[(m+1)/(2 + Mod[m+1, 2])]]], !Divisible[fac, #] && SD[m, #] >= #&]]; k = 1; Select[Range[1000], DBP[#, k] == 1&] (* End *) PROG (PARI) is_A094960(k) = !#select(x->(denominator(x)!=1), Vec(deriv(bernpol(k)))); \\ Michel Marcus, Feb 15 2021 (Python) from itertools import count, islice from sympy import Poly, diff, bernoulli from sympy.abc import x def A094960_gen(): # generator of terms return filter(lambda k:k<=1 or all(c.is_integer for c in Poly(diff(bernoulli(k, x), x)).coeffs()), count(1)) A094960_list = list(islice(A094960_gen(), 10)) # Chai Wah Wu, Oct 03 2023 CROSSREFS Cf. A094960, A144845, A160014, A195441, A324370, A366168, A366169. Sequence in context: A045963 A128169 A095923 * A357110 A100195 A032396 Adjacent sequences: A094957 A094958 A094959 * A094961 A094962 A094963 KEYWORD nonn,fini,hard AUTHOR Benoit Cloitre, Jun 19 2004 STATUS approved

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Last modified August 11 19:17 EDT 2024. Contains 375073 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)