

A000105


Number of free polyominoes (or square animals) with n cells.
(Formerly M1425 N0561)


195



1, 1, 1, 2, 5, 12, 35, 108, 369, 1285, 4655, 17073, 63600, 238591, 901971, 3426576, 13079255, 50107909, 192622052, 742624232, 2870671950, 11123060678, 43191857688, 168047007728, 654999700403, 2557227044764, 9999088822075, 39153010938487, 153511100594603
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OFFSET

0,4


COMMENTS

For n>0, a(n) + A030228(n) = A000988(n) because the number of free polyominoes plus the number of polyominoes lacking bilateral symmetry equals the number of onesided polyominoes.  Graeme McRae, Jan 05 2006
The possible symmetry groups of a (nonempty) polyomino are the 10 subgroups of the dihedral group D_8 of order 8: D_8, 1, Z_2 (five times), Z_4, (Z_2)^2 (twice).  Benoit Jubin, Dec 30 2008
Names for first few polyominoes: monomino, domino, tromino, tetromino, pentomino, hexomino, heptomino, octomino, enneomino, decomino, hendecomino, dodecomino, ...
Limit_{n>oo} a(n)^(1/n) = mu with 3.98 < mu < 4.64 (quoted by Castiglione et al., with a reference to Barequet et al., 2006, for the lower bound). The upper bound is due to Klarner and Rivest, 1973. By Madras, 1999, it is now known that this limit, also known as Klarner's constant, is equal to the limit growth rate lim_{n>oo} a(n+1)/a(n).
Polyominoes are worth exploring in the elementary school classroom. Students in grade 2 can reproduce the first 6 terms. Grade 3 students can explore area and perimeter. Grade 4 students can talk about polyomino symmetries.
The pentominoes should be singled out for special attention: 1) they offer a nice, manageable set that a teacher can commercially acquire without too much expense. 2) There are also deeply strategic games and perplexing puzzles that are great for all students. 3) A fraction of students will become engaged because of the beautiful solutions.
Conjecture: Almost all polyominoes are holey. In other words, A000104(n)/a(n) tends to 0 for increasing n.  John Mason, Dec 11 2021 (This is true, a consequence of Madras's 1999 pattern theorem.  Johann Peters, Jan 06 2024)


REFERENCES

S. W. Golomb, Polyominoes, Appendix D, p. 152; Princeton Univ. Pr. NJ 1994
J. E. Goodman and J. O'Rourke, editors, Handbook of Discrete and Computational Geometry, CRC Press, 1997, p. 229.
D. A. Klarner, The Mathematical Gardner, p. 252 Wadsworth Int. CA 1981
W. F. Lunnon, Counting polyominoes, pp. 347372 of A. O. L. Atkin and B. J. Birch, editors, Computers in Number Theory. Academic Press, NY, 1971.
W. F. Lunnon, Counting hexagonal and triangular polyominoes, pp. 87100 of R. C. Read, editor, Graph Theory and Computing. Academic Press, NY, 1972.
George E. Martin, Polyominoes  A Guide to Puzzles and Problems in Tiling, The Mathematical Association of America, 1996
Ed Pegg, Jr., Polyform puzzles, in Tribute to a Mathemagician, Peters, 2005, pp. 119125.
R. C. Read, Some applications of computers in graph theory, in L. W. Beineke and R. J. Wilson, editors, Selected Topics in Graph Theory, Academic Press, NY, 1978, pp. 417444.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).


LINKS

T. R. Parkin, L. J. Lander, and D. R. Parkin, Polyomino Enumeration Results, presented at SIAM Fall Meeting, 1967, and accompanying letter from T. J. Lander (annotated scanned copy)
D. H. Redelmeier, Table 3 of Counting polyominoes...
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Polyomino
D. Xu, T. Horiyama, T. Shirakawa and R. Uehara, Common Developments of Three Incongruent Boxes of Area 30, in Proc. 12th Annual Conference, TAMC 2015, Singapore, May 1820, 2015, LNCS Vol. 9076, pp. 236247.


FORMULA



EXAMPLE

a(0) = 1 as there is 1 empty polyomino with #cells = 0.  Fred Lunnon, Jun 24 2020


MATHEMATICA

(* In this program by Jaime RangelMondragón, polyominoes are represented as a list of Gaussian integers. *)
polyominoQ[p_List] := And @@ ((IntegerQ[Re[#]] && IntegerQ[Im[#]])& /@ p);
rot[p_?polyominoQ] := I*p;
ref[p_?polyominoQ] := (#  2 Re[#])& /@ p;
cyclic[p_] := Module[{i = p, ans = {p}}, While[(i = rot[i]) != p, AppendTo[ans, i]]; ans];
dihedral[p_?polyominoQ] := Flatten[{#, ref[#]}& /@ cyclic[p], 1];
canonical[p_?polyominoQ] := Union[(#  (Min[Re[p]] + Min[Im[p]]*I))& /@ p];
allPieces[p_] := Union[canonical /@ dihedral[p]];
polyominoes[1] = {{0}};
polyominoes[n_] := polyominoes[n] = Module[{f, fig, ans = {}}, fig = ((f = #1; ({f, #1 + 1, f, #1 + I, f, #1  1, f, #1  I}&) /@ f)&) /@ polyominoes[n  1]; fig = Partition[Flatten[fig], n]; f = Select[Union[canonical /@ fig], Length[#1] == n &]; While[f != {}, ans = {ans, First[f]}; f = Complement[f, allPieces[First[f]]]]; Partition[Flatten[ans], n]];
a[n_] := a[n] = Length[ polyominoes[n]];
Table[Print["a(", n, ") = ", a[n]]; a[n], {n, 1, 12}] (* JeanFrançois Alcover, Mar 24 2015, after Jaime RangelMondragón *)


CROSSREFS

Excluding a(0), 8th and 9th row of A366766.


KEYWORD

nonn,hard,nice,core


AUTHOR



EXTENSIONS

Extended to n=28 by Tomás Oliveira e Silva
Misspelling "polyominos" corrected by Don Knuth, May 03 2016
a(29)a(45), a(47) from Toshihiro Shirakawa


STATUS

approved



