

A238490


Odd primes p that divide a Lucas quotient studied by H. C. Williams: A001353(p  (3/p))/p, where (3/p) is a Jacobi symbol.


3




OFFSET

1,1


COMMENTS

The condition for an odd prime p to be a member of this sequence is that p^2 divides A001353(p  (3/p)).
Neither this quotient, nor the Lucas sequence U(4, 1) on which it is based, has a common name; but its fundamental discriminant of 3 places it between the quotient based on the Pell sequence U(2, 1) with discriminant 2 (A000129), and that based on the Fibonacci sequence U(1, 1) with discriminant 5 (A000045). Values of p dividing the Pell quotient will be found under A238736, while for the Fibonacci quotient it is known that there is no such p < 9.7 x 10^14.
The interest in this family of numbertheoretic quotients derives from H. C. Williams, "Some formulas concerning the fundamental unit of a real quadratic field," p. 440, which proves a formula connecting the present quotient with the Fermat quotient base 2 (A007663), the Fermat quotient base 3 (A146211), and the harmonic number H(floor(p/12)) (see the Formula section below). As is well known, the vanishing of each of these Fermat quotients is a necessary condition for the failure of the first case of Fermat's Last Theorem (see discussions under A001220 and A014127); and a corresponding result concerning this type of harmonic number was proved by Dilcher and Skula. Thus, the vanishing mod p of the quotient based on U(4, 1) is also a necessary condition for the failure of the first case of Fermat's Last Theorem.
The pioneering computation for this quotient appears to be that of Elsenhans and Jahnel, "The Fibonacci sequence modulo p^2," p. 5, who report 103 as the only value of a(n) < 10^9. Extending the search to p < 2.5 x 10^10 has found only one further solution, 2297860813.
Let LucasQuotient(p) = A001353(p  (3/p))/p, q_2 = (2^(p1)  1)/p = A007663(p) be the corresponding Fermat quotient of base 2, q_3 = (3^(p1)  1)/p = A146211(p) be the corresponding Fermat quotient of base 3, H(floor(p/12)) be a harmonic number. Then Williams (1991) shows that 6*(3/p)*LucasQuotient(p) == 6*q_2  3*q_3  2*H(floor(p/12)) (mod p).
Also with an initial 2, primes p such that p^2 divides A001353(p  Kronecker(12,p)) (note that 12 is the discriminant of the characteristic polynomial of A001353, x^2  4x + 1).  Jianing Song, Jul 28 2018


LINKS

John Blythe Dobson, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..2
Karl Dilcher and Ladislav Skula, A new criterion for the first case of Fermat's Last Theorem, Mathematics of Computation, 64 (1995) 363392.
AndreasStephan Elsenhans and Jörg Jahnel, The Fibonacci sequence modulo p^2  An investigation by computer for p < 1014, arxiv 1006.0824 [math.NT], 2010.
H. C. Williams, Some formulas concerning the fundamental unit of a real quadratic field, Discrete Mathematics, 92 (1991), 431440.


EXAMPLE

LucasQuotient(103) = 103*851367555454046677501642274766916900879231854719584128208.


MATHEMATICA

The following criteria are equivalent:
PrimeQ[p] &&
Mod[(MatrixPower[{{1, 2}, {1, 3}}, pJacobiSymbol[3, p]1].{{1}, {1}})[[2, 1]], p^2]==0
PrimeQ[p] && Mod[Last[LinearRecurrence[{4, 1}, {0, 1}, pJacobiSymbol[3, p]+1]], p^2]==0


PROG

(PARI) isprime(p) && (Mod([2, 2; 1, 0], p^2)^(pkronecker(3, p)))[2, 1]==0 \\ This test, which was used to find the second member of this sequence, is based on the test for A238736 devised by Charles R Greathouse IV


CROSSREFS

Cf. A001353, A238736.
Sequence in context: A097726 A262273 A088584 * A097014 A106297 A090849
Adjacent sequences: A238487 A238488 A238489 * A238491 A238492 A238493


KEYWORD

nonn,hard,more,bref


AUTHOR

John Blythe Dobson, Mar 28 2014


STATUS

approved



