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A336744 Integers b where the number of cycles under iteration of sum of squares of digits in base b is exactly three. 2
14, 66, 94, 300, 384, 436, 496, 750, 1406, 1794, 2336, 2624, 28034 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,1

COMMENTS

Let b > 1 be an integer, and write the base b expansion of any nonnegative integer m as m = x_0 + x_1 b + ... + x_d b^d with x_d > 0 and 0 <= x_i < b for i=0,...,d.

Consider the map S_{x^2,b}: N to N, with S_{x^2,b}(m) := x_0^2+ ... + x_d^2.

This is the 'sum of the squares of the digits' dynamical system alluded to in the name of the sequence.

It is known that the orbit set {m,S_{x^2,b}(m), S_{x^2,b}(S_{x^2,b}(m)), ...} is finite for all m>0. Each orbit contains a finite cycle, and for a given base b, the union of such cycles over all orbit sets is finite. Let us denote by L(x^2,i) the set of bases b such that the set of cycles associated to S_{x^2,b} consists of exactly i elements. In this notation, the sequence is the set of known elements of L(x^2,3).

A 1978 conjecture of Hasse and Prichett describes the set L(x^2,2). New elements have been added to this set in the paper Integer Dynamics, by D. Lorenzini, M. Melistas, A. Suresh, M. Suwama, and H. Wang. It is natural to wonder whether the set L(x^2,3) is infinite. It is a folklore conjecture that L(x^2,1) = {2,4}.

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..13.

H. Hasse and G. Prichett, A conjecture on digital cycles, J. reine angew. Math. 298 (1978), 8--15. Also on GDZ.

D. Lorenzini, M. Melistas, A. Suresh, M. Suwama, and H. Wang, Integer Dynamics, preprint.

FORMULA

Integers b such that A193583(b)+A193585(b) = 3. - Michel Marcus, Aug 03 2020

EXAMPLE

For instance, in base 14, the three cycles are (1), (37,85), and (25,122,164,221,123,185,178,244,46). To verify that (37,85) is a cycle in base 14, note that 37=9+2*14, and that 9^2+2^2=85. Similarly, 85=1+6*14, and 1^2+6^2=37.

CROSSREFS

Cf. A193583, A193585 (where cycles and fixed points are treated separately).

Cf. A336762 (2 cycles).

Cf. A336783 (4 cycles with sum of cubes of the digits).

Sequence in context: A058092 A213757 A249290 * A249291 A280401 A221703

Adjacent sequences:  A336741 A336742 A336743 * A336745 A336746 A336747

KEYWORD

nonn,base,hard,more

AUTHOR

Dino Lorenzini, Aug 02 2020

STATUS

approved

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Last modified August 7 23:50 EDT 2022. Contains 355995 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)