This site is supported by donations to The OEIS Foundation.

 Please make a donation to keep the OEIS running. We are now in our 55th year. In the past year we added 12000 new sequences and reached 8000 citations (which often say "discovered thanks to the OEIS"). We need to raise money to hire someone to manage submissions, which would reduce the load on our editors and speed up editing. Other ways to donate

 Hints (Greetings from The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences!)
 A320857 a(n) = Pi(8,5)(n) + Pi(8,7)(n) - Pi(8,1)(n) - Pi(8,3)(n) where Pi(a,b)(x) denotes the number of primes in the arithmetic progression a*k + b less than or equal to x. 13
 0, 0, -1, -1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, -1, -1, -1, -1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
 OFFSET 1,31 COMMENTS a(n) is the number of odd primes <= n that have -2 as a quadratic nonresidue minus the number of primes <= n that have -2 as a quadratic residue. It seems that there are more negative terms here than in some other sequences mentioned in crossrefs; nevertheless, among the first 10000 terms, only 212 ones are negative. In general, assuming the strong form of RH, if 0 < a, b < k, gcd(a, k) = gcd(b, k) = 1, a is a quadratic residue and b is a quadratic nonresidue mod n, then Pi(k,b)(n) > Pi(k,a)(n) occurs more often than not. This phenomenon is called "Chebyshev's bias". Here, although 3 is not a quadratic residue modulo 8, for most n we have Pi(8,5)(n) + Pi(8,7)(n) > Pi(8,1)(n) - Pi(8,3)(n), Pi(8,3)(n) + Pi(8,7)(n) > Pi(8,1)(n) + Pi(8,5)(n) and Pi(8,5)(n) + Pi(8,7)(n) > Pi(8,1)(n) + Pi(8,7)(n). LINKS Wikipedia, Chebyshev's bias FORMULA a(n) = -Sum_{primes p<=n} Kronecker(-2,p) = -Sum_{primes p<=n} A188510(p). EXAMPLE Pi(8,1)(200) = 8, Pi(8,5)(200) = 13, Pi(8,3)(200) = Pi(8,7)(200) = 12, so a(200) = 13 + 12 - 8 - 12 = 5. MATHEMATICA Accumulate@ Array[-If[PrimeQ@ #, KroneckerSymbol[-2, #], 0] &, 88] (* Michael De Vlieger, Nov 25 2018 *) PROG (PARI) a(n) = -sum(i=1, n, isprime(i)*kronecker(-2, i)) CROSSREFS Cf. A188510. Let d be a fundamental discriminant. Sequences of the form "a(n) = -Sum_{primes p<=n} Kronecker(d,p)" with |d| <= 12: A321860 (d=-11), this sequence (d=-8), A321859 (d=-7), A066520 (d=-4), A321856 (d=-3), A321857 (d=5), A071838 (d=8), A321858 (d=12). Sequences of the form "a(n) = -Sum_{i=1..n} Kronecker(d,prime(i))" with |d| <= 12: A321865 (d=-11), A320858 (d=-8), A321864 (d=-7), A038698 (d=-4), A112632 (d=-3), A321862 (d=5), A321861 (d=8), A321863 (d=12). Sequence in context: A095139 A109038 A208246 * A211664 A182434 A185679 Adjacent sequences:  A320854 A320855 A320856 * A320858 A320859 A320860 KEYWORD sign AUTHOR Jianing Song, Nov 24 2018 STATUS approved

Lookup | Welcome | Wiki | Register | Music | Plot 2 | Demos | Index | Browse | More | WebCam
Contribute new seq. or comment | Format | Style Sheet | Transforms | Superseeker | Recent
The OEIS Community | Maintained by The OEIS Foundation Inc.

Last modified December 8 17:36 EST 2019. Contains 329865 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)