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A316660 Number of n-bit binary necklaces (unmarked cyclic n-bit binary strings) containing no runs of length > 2. 1
0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 5, 4, 7, 10, 14, 18, 31, 40, 63, 94, 142, 210, 329, 492, 765, 1170, 1810, 2786, 4341, 6712, 10461, 16274, 25414, 39650, 62075, 97108, 152287, 238838, 375166, 589526, 927555, 1459960, 2300347, 3626242, 5721044, 9030450, 14264309, 22542396, 35646311, 56393862 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,3

COMMENTS

This is the "unmarked" version of sequence A007040. An unmarked cyclic string is a necklace. Notice that we define a(1) = 0 and a(2) = 1 because wrapping around the circle is allowed here (otherwise we would have to let a(1) = 2 and a(2) = 3).

Let q and m be positive integers. We denote by f1(m,q,n) the number of marked cyclic q-ary strings of length n that contain no runs of lengths > m when no wrapping around is allowed, and by f2(m,q,n) when wrapping around is allowed.

It is clear that f1(m,q,n) = f2(m,q,n) for n > m, but f1(m,q,n) = q^n and f2(m,q,n) = q^n - q when 1 <= n <= m.

Burstein and Wilf (1997) and Edlin and Zeilberger (2000) considered f1(m,q,n) while Hadjicostas and Zhang considered f2(m,q,n).

Let g(m, q, x) = (m+1-m*q*x)/(1-q*x+(q-1)*x^(m+1)) - (m+1)/(1-x^(m+1)).

By generalizing Moser (1993), Burstein and Wilf (1997) proved that the g.f. of the numbers f1(m,q,n) is F1(m,q,x) = ((1-x^m)/(1-x))*(q*x + (q-1)*x* g(m, q, x)).

Using the above formula by Burstein and Wilf (1997), Hadjicostas and Zhang (2018) proved that the g.f. of the numbers f2(m,q,n) is F2(m,q,x) = ((q-1)*x*(1-x^m)/(1-x))*g(m, q, x).

If f3(m,q,n) is the number of q-ary necklaces (= unmarked cyclic strings) of length n with no runs of length > m (and wrapping around is allowed), then f3(m,q,n) = (1/n)*Sum_{d|n} phi(n/d)*f2(m,q,d), where phi(.) is Euler's totient function. Using this formula and F2(m,q,x), Hadjicostas and Zhang (2018) proved that the g.f. of the numbers f3(m,q,n) is given by F3(m,q,x) = -(q-1)*x*(1-x^m)/((1-x)*(1-x^(m+1))) - Sum_{s>=1} (phi(s)/s)*log(1 - (q-1)*(x^s - x^(s*(m+1)))/(1-x^s)).

If A(x) is the g.f. of the current sequence (a(n): n >= 1), we have A(x) = F3(m=2, q=2, x). Also, a(n) = f3(m=2, q=2, n) = (1/n)*Sum_{d|n} phi(n/d)*f2(m=2, q=2, d). Note that f2(m=2, q=2, n=1) = 0 and f2(m=2, q=2, n) = A007040(n) for n >= 2.

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..45.

A. Burstein and H. S. Wilf, On cyclic strings without long constant blocks, Fibonacci Quarterly, 35 (1997), 240-247.

A. E. Edlin and D. Zeilberger, The Goulden-Jackson cluster method for cyclic words, Adv. Appl. Math., 25 (2000), 228-232.

Petros Hadjicostas and Lingyun Zhang, On cyclic strings avoiding a pattern, Discrete Mathematics, 341 (2018), 1662-1674.

W. O. J. Moser, Cyclic binary strings without long runs of like (alternating) bits, Fibonacci Quart. 31 (1993), no. 1, 2-6.

FORMULA

For proofs of the following formulae, see the comments above.

a(n) = (1/n)*Sum_{d|n} phi(n/d)*A007040(d)*I(d > 1), where I(condition) = 1 if the condition holds, and 0 otherwise.

a(n) = A000358(n) - A011655(n). (This formula is the "unmarked" version of E. W. Weisstein's formula that can be found in the comments for sequence A007040.)

a(p) = A007040(p)/p for p prime >= 2.

G.f.: A(x) = -x*(1+x)/(1-x^3) - Sum_{s>=1} (phi(s)/s)*log(1 - x^s - x^(2*s)) = (g.f. of A000358) - (g.f. of A011655).

EXAMPLE

For n=1 we have no allowable necklaces (because the strings 0 and 1 can be wrapped around themselves on a circle, and thus they contain runs of length > 2).

For n=2, the only allowable necklace is 01 (because 00 and 11 can be wrapped around themselves on a circle, and thus they contain runs of length > 2).

For n=3, the allowable necklaces are 011 and 100.

For n=4, the allowable necklaces are 0011 and 1010.

For n=5, the allowable necklaces are 01010 and 10101.

For n=6, the allowable necklaces are 010101, 001001, 110110, 101001, and 010110.

PROG

(PARI) a(n) = (1/n) * sumdiv(n, d, eulerphi(n/d)*(fibonacci(d-1)+fibonacci(d+1))) - sign(n%3); \\ Michel Marcus, Jul 10 2018; using 2nd formula

CROSSREFS

Cf. A000358, A007040, A011655, A092297, A218034.

Sequence in context: A103286 A285704 A058704 * A098101 A257670 A105960

Adjacent sequences:  A316657 A316658 A316659 * A316661 A316662 A316663

KEYWORD

nonn

AUTHOR

Petros Hadjicostas, Jul 09 2018

EXTENSIONS

More terms from Michel Marcus, Jul 10 2018

STATUS

approved

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Last modified June 22 14:32 EDT 2021. Contains 345380 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)