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A261249 Number of classes of proper solutions of the Pell equation x^2 - D(n) y^2 = +4 for D(n) = A079896(n), n >= 0. 1
2, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 2, 0, 1, 2, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 1, 2, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 1, 2, 1, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,1

COMMENTS

See the W. Lang link on A225953, Table 2. References will also be found there. For the present class number see especially Theorem 109 pp. 207-208 of the Nagell reference.

These class numbers should not be confused with the class numbers of indefinite binary quadratic forms of discriminant D(n), which are given in A087048(n).

If a(n) = 2 then the proper positive fundamental solution for the second class [x2(n), y2(n)] is obtained from the solution of the first class [x1(n), y1(n)] (shown in the mentioned Table 2 under Pell(X, Y)) by application of the matrix M(n) = [[x0(n), D(n)*y0(n)], [y0(n), x0(n)]] on (x1(n), -y1(n))^T (T for transposed), where x0(n) and y0(n) is the positive (proper) fundamental solution of x^2 - D(n)*y^2 = +1 found under A033313 and A033317 for the appropriate D from A000037. Application of positive powers of M(n) to the proper positive fundamental solution of each class produces all positive solutions.

If a(n) = 1 the class is called ambiguous (see Nagell, p. 205). In this case the proper positive fundamental solution [x1(n), y1(n)] = [x(n), y(n)] and the negative one [x1(n), -y1(n)] belong to the same class.

For every D(n) = A079896(n) there is the improper positive fundamental solution [2*x0(n), 2*y0(n)].

Conjecture: For even D(n), i.e., D from 4*A000037, and a(n) = 0 one finds for r(n) = D(n)/4 coincidence with Conway's so called rectangular numbers A007969. The first D values are 8, 20, 24, 40, 48, 52, 56, 68, 72, 80, ... This is equivalent to the conjecture that X^2 - r*y^2 = +1 has an even fundamental positive solution y = y0 precisely for the numbers A007969 (because x has to be even, x = 2*X, and whenever y0 is even all y solutions are even). See A261250 and A262024 for the y0 and x0 values, respectively.

REFERENCES

Nagell, T. Introduction to number theory, Chelsea Publishing Company, 1964, page 52.

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=0..61.

EXAMPLE

n=0: D(0) = 5 = A000037(3) with the a(0) = 2 proper positive fundamental solutions [x, y] = [3, 1] and [7, 3] for the two classes.

  [x0(0), y0(0)] = [A033313(3), A033317(3)] = [9, 4], and (7, 3)^T = [[9, 4*5], [4, 9]] (3, -1)^T.

  All other positive solutions in each of the two classes are obtained by applying positive powers of this matrix M(5) to the fundamental solutions.

  The improper positive fundamental solution is [2*9, 2*4] = [18, 8].

n=1: D(1) = 8 = A000037(6) has a(1) = 0, hence there are only the improper solutions obtainable from [2*3, 2*1] = [6, 2], the smallest positive one. For this even D one has, with x = 2*X, X^2 - 8/4 y^2 = +1, which has an even positive fundamental solution y0 = 2, and r(1) = D(1)/4 = 2 is A007969(1).

CROSSREFS

Cf. A079896, A225953, A087048, A033313, A033317, A261250, A262024.

Sequence in context: A072705 A072574 A293595 * A058650 A112177 A115723

Adjacent sequences:  A261246 A261247 A261248 * A261250 A261251 A261252

KEYWORD

nonn

AUTHOR

Wolfdieter Lang, Sep 16 2015

STATUS

approved

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Last modified February 24 05:48 EST 2018. Contains 299597 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)