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A233411 The number of length n binary words with some prefix which contains two more 1's than 0's or two more 0's than 1's. 6
0, 0, 2, 4, 12, 24, 56, 112, 240, 480, 992, 1984, 4032, 8064, 16256, 32512, 65280, 130560, 261632, 523264, 1047552, 2095104, 4192256, 8384512, 16773120, 33546240, 67100672, 134201344, 268419072, 536838144, 1073709056, 2147418112, 4294901760, 8589803520 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,3

COMMENTS

Also, the number of non-symmetric compositions of n+1, e.g. 4 can be written 1+3, 3+1, 1+1+2, or 2+1+1 (but not 4, 2+2, 1+2+1 or 1+1+1+1). - Henry Bottomley, Jun 27 2005

If we examine the set of all binary words with infinite length we find that the average length of the shortest prefix which satisfies the above conditions is 4.

a(n) is also the number of minimum distinguishing (2-)labelings of the path graph P_n for n > 1. - Eric W. Weisstein, Oct 16 2014

Also, the decimal representation of the diagonal from the origin to the corner of the n-th stage of growth of the two-dimensional cellular automaton defined by "Rule 62", based on the 5-celled von Neumann neighborhood, initialized with a single black (ON) cell at stage zero. - Robert Price, Apr 22 2017

REFERENCES

S. Wolfram, A New Kind of Science, Wolfram Media, 2002; p. 170.

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=0..33.

N. J. A. Sloane, On the Number of ON Cells in Cellular Automata, arXiv:1503.01168 [math.CO], 2015

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Elementary Cellular Automaton

S. Wolfram, A New Kind of Science

Wolfram Research, Wolfram Atlas of Simple Programs

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Distinguishing Number

Index entries for sequences related to cellular automata

Index to 2D 5-Neighbor Cellular Automata

Index to Elementary Cellular Automata

Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (2,2,-4).

FORMULA

G.f.: 2*x^2/( (1 - 2*x^2)*(1-2x) ).

a(n) = 2^n - 2^ceiling(n/2).

a(n) = 2*A032085(n) = 2*A122746(n-2) for n>=2. - Alois P. Heinz, Dec 09 2013

EXAMPLE

a(3) = 4 because we have: 000, 001, 110, 111.

MATHEMATICA

nn=30; CoefficientList[Series[2x^2/(1-2x^2)/(1-2x), {x, 0, nn}], x]

LinearRecurrence[{2, 2, -4}, {0, 0, 2}, 40] (* Harvey P. Dale, Sep 06 2015 *)

PROG

(PARI) a(n)=2^n-2^ceil(n/2) \\ Charles R Greathouse IV, Dec 09 2013

CROSSREFS

Cf. A233533.

Sequence in context: A201078 A004645 A045687 * A057422 A036045 A331392

Adjacent sequences:  A233408 A233409 A233410 * A233412 A233413 A233414

KEYWORD

nonn,easy

AUTHOR

Geoffrey Critzer, Dec 09 2013

EXTENSIONS

Misplaced comment added by Andrew Howroyd, Sep 30 2017

STATUS

approved

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Last modified March 1 02:21 EST 2021. Contains 341732 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)