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A052534 Expansion of (1-x)*(1+x)/(1-2*x-x^2+x^3). 11
1, 2, 4, 9, 20, 45, 101, 227, 510, 1146, 2575, 5786, 13001, 29213, 65641, 147494, 331416, 744685, 1673292, 3759853, 8448313, 18983187, 42654834, 95844542, 215360731, 483911170, 1087338529, 2443227497, 5489882353, 12335653674 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,2

COMMENTS

Pairwise sums of A006356. Cf. A033303, A077850. - Ralf Stephan, Jul 06 2003

Number of (3412, P)-avoiding involutions in S_{n+1}, where P={1342, 1423, 2314, 3142, 2431, 4132, 3241, 4213, 21543, 32154, 43215, 15432, 53241, 52431, 42315, 15342, 54321}. - Ralf Stephan, Jul 06 2003

Number of 31- and 22-avoiding words of length n on alphabet {1,2,3} which do not end in 3 (e.g., at n=3, we have 111, 112, 121, 132, 211, 212, 232, 321 and 332). See A028859, A001519. - Jon Perry, Aug 04 2003

Form the graph with matrix A=[1, 1, 1; 1, 0, 0; 1, 0, 1]. Then the sequence 1,1,2,4,... with g.f. (1-x-x^2)/(1-2x-x^2+x^3) counts closed walks of length n at the degree 3 vertex. - Paul Barry, Oct 02 2004

a(n) is the number of Motzkin (n+1)-sequences whose flatsteps all occur at level <=1 and whose height is <=2. For example, a(5)=45 counts all 51 Motzkin 6-paths except FUUFDD, UFUFDD, UUFDDF, UUFDFD, UUFFDD, UUUDDD (the first five violate the flatstep restriction and the last violates the height restriction). - David Callan, Dec 09 2004

From Paul Barry, Nov 03 2010: (Start)

The g.f. of 1,1,2,4,9,... can be expressed as 1/(1-x/(1-x/(1-x^2)) and as 1/(1-x-x^2/(1-x-x^2)).

The second expression shows the link to the Motzkin numbers. (End)

From Emeric Deutsch, Oct 31 2010: (Start)

a(n) is the number of compositions of n into odd summands when we have two kinds of 1's. Proof: the g.f. of the set S={1,1',3,5,7,...} is g=2x+x^3/(1-x^2) and the g.f. of finite sequences of elements of S is 1/(1-g). Example: a(4)=20 because we have 1+3, 1'+3, 3+1, 3+1', and 2^4=16 of sums x+y+z+u, where x,y,z,u are taken from {1,1'}.

(End)

a(n-1) is the top left entry of the n-th power of any of the six 3 X 3 matrices [1, 1, 0; 1, 1, 1; 0, 1, 0] or [1, 1, 1; 0, 1, 1; 1, 1, 0] or [1, 0, 1; 1, 1, 1; 1, 1, 0] or [1, 1, 1; 1, 0, 1; 0, 1, 1] or [1, 0, 1; 0, 0, 1; 1, 1, 1] or [1, 1, 0; 1, 0, 1; 1, 1, 1]. - R. J. Mathar, Feb 03 2014

LINKS

G. C. Greubel, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..1000

C. P. de Andrade, J. P. de Oliveira Santos, E. V. P. da Silva and K. C. P. Silva, Polynomial Generalizations and Combinatorial Interpretations for Sequences Including the Fibonacci and Pell Numbers, Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics, 2013, 3, 25-32 doi:10.4236/ojdm.2013.31006. - From N. J. A. Sloane, Feb 20 2013

E. S. Egge, Restricted 3412-Avoiding Involutions: Continued Fractions, Chebyshev Polynomials and Enumerations, arXiv:math/0307050 [math.CO], 2003, sec. 8.

Rigoberto Flórez, José L. Ramírez, Some enumerations on non-decreasing Motzkin paths, Australasian J. of Combinatorics (2018) Vol. 72(1), 138-154.

INRIA Algorithms Project, Encyclopedia of Combinatorial Structures 464

Alexey Ustinov, Supercontinuants, arXiv:1503.04497 [math.NT], 2015.

R. Witula, D. Slota and A. Warzynski, Quasi-Fibonacci Numbers of the Seventh Order, J. Integer Seq., 9 (2006), Article 06.4.3.

Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (2,1,-1).

FORMULA

G.f.: (1 - x^2)/(1 - 2*x - x^2 + x^3).

a(n) = 2*a(n-1) + a(n-2) - a(n-3), with a(0)=1, a(1)=2, a(2)=4.

a(n) = Sum_{alpha = RootOf(1-2*x-x^2+x^3)} (1/7)*(2 + alpha)*alpha^(-1-n).

a(n) = central term in the (n+1)-th power of the 3 X 3 matrix (shown in the example of A066170): [1 1 1 / 1 1 0 / 1 0 0]. E.g. a(6) = 101 since the central term in M^7 = 101. - Gary W. Adamson, Feb 01 2004

a(n) = A006054(n+2) - A006054(n). - Vladimir Kruchinin, Sep 09 2010

a(n) = A077998(n+2) - 2*A006054(n+2), which implies 7*a(n-2) = (2 + c(4) - 2*c(2))*(1 + c(1))^n + (2 + c(1) - 2*c(4))*(1 + c(2))^n + (2 + c(2) - 2*c(1))*(1 + c(4))^n, where c(j)=2*Cos(2Pi*j/7), a(-2)=a(-1)=1 since A077998 and A006054 are equal to the respective quasi-Fibonacci numbers. [Witula, Slota and Warzynski] - Roman Witula, Aug 07 2012

a(n+1) = A033303(n+1) - A033303(n). - Roman Witula, Sep 14 2012

MAPLE

spec := [S, {S=Sequence(Union(Z, Prod(Z, Sequence(Prod(Z, Z)))))}, unlabeled]: seq(combstruct[count](spec, size=n), n=0..20);

MATHEMATICA

LinearRecurrence[{2, 1, -1}, {1, 2, 4}, 40] (* Roman Witula, Aug 07 2012 *)

CoefficientList[Series[(1-x^2)/(1-2x-x^2+x^3), {x, 0, 40}], x] (* Vincenzo Librandi, Mar 17 2015 *)

PROG

(Maxima) h(n):=if n=0 then 1 else sum(sum(binomial(k, j)*binomial(j, n-3*k+2*j)*2^(3*k-n-j)*(-1)^(k-j), j, 0, k), k, 1, n); a(n):=if n<2 then h(n) else h(n)-h(n-2); /* Vladimir Kruchinin, Sep 09 2010 */

(MAGMA) [n le 3 select 2^(n-1) else 2*Self(n-1)+Self(n-2)-Self(n-3): n in [1..40]]; // Vincenzo Librandi, Mar 17 2015

(PARI) my(x='x+O('x^40)); Vec((1-x^2)/(1-2*x-x^2+x^3)) \\ G. C. Greubel, May 09 2019

(Sage) ((1-x^2)/(1-2*x-x^2+x^3)).series(x, 40).coefficients(x, sparse=False) # G. C. Greubel, May 09 2019

(GAP) a:=[1, 2, 4];; for n in [4..40] do a[n]:=2*a[n-1]+a[n-2]-a[n-3]; od; a; # G. C. Greubel, May 09 2019

CROSSREFS

Cf. A066170.

Sequence in context: A108469 A085584 A080019 * A213411 A080135 A227978

Adjacent sequences:  A052531 A052532 A052533 * A052535 A052536 A052537

KEYWORD

nonn,easy

AUTHOR

encyclopedia(AT)pommard.inria.fr, Jan 25 2000

EXTENSIONS

More terms from James A. Sellers, Jun 05 2000

STATUS

approved

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Last modified December 13 09:48 EST 2019. Contains 329968 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)