

A019692


Decimal expansion of 2*Pi.


64



6, 2, 8, 3, 1, 8, 5, 3, 0, 7, 1, 7, 9, 5, 8, 6, 4, 7, 6, 9, 2, 5, 2, 8, 6, 7, 6, 6, 5, 5, 9, 0, 0, 5, 7, 6, 8, 3, 9, 4, 3, 3, 8, 7, 9, 8, 7, 5, 0, 2, 1, 1, 6, 4, 1, 9, 4, 9, 8, 8, 9, 1, 8, 4, 6, 1, 5, 6, 3, 2, 8, 1, 2, 5, 7, 2, 4, 1, 7, 9, 9, 7, 2, 5, 6, 0, 6, 9, 6, 5, 0, 6, 8, 4, 2, 3, 4, 1, 3
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OFFSET

1,1


COMMENTS

Pi/5 or 2*Pi/10 is the expected surface area containing completely a Brownian curve (trajectory) on a plane.  Lekraj Beedassy, Jul 28 2005
Bob Palais considers this a more fundamental constant than Pi, see the Palais reference and link.  Jonathan Vos Post, Sep 10 2010
The Persian mathematician Jamshid alKashi seems to have been the first to use the circumference divided by the radius as the circle constant. In Treatise on the Circumference published 1424 he calculated the circumference of a unit circle to 9 sexagesimal places.  Peter Harremoës, John W. Nicholson, Aug 02 2012
"Proponents of a new mathematical constant tau (τ), equal to two times π, have argued that a constant based on the ratio of a circle's circumference to its radius rather than to its diameter would be more natural and would simplify many formulas" (from Wikipedia).  Jonathan Sondow, Aug 15 2012
The constant 2*Pi appears in the formula for the period T of a simple gravity pendulum. For small angles this period is given by Christiaan Huygens’s law, i.e., T = 2*Pi*sqrt(L/g), see for more information A223067.  Johannes W. Meijer, Mar 14 2013
There are seven consecutive nines at positions 762 to 768.  Roland Kneer, Jul 05 2013
Volume of a cylinder in which a sphere of radius 1 can be inscribed.  Omar E. Pol, Sep 25 2013
2*Pi is also the surface area of a sphere whose diameter equals the square root of 2. More generally, x*Pi is also the surface area of a sphere whose diameter equals the square root of x.  Omar E. Pol, Dec 18 2013
Also, (2*Pi)*a^2 is the area of the deltoid (an hypocycloid with three cusps) whose Cartesian parametrization is:
x = a * ((2*cos(t) + cos(2*t)),
y = a * ((2*sin(t)  sin(2*t)).
The length of this deltoid is 16*a. See the curve at the Mathcurve link. (End)
Pi/5 = 0.1 * 2*Pi is the mean area of the plane triangles formed by 3 points independently and uniformly chosen at random on the surface of a unitradius sphere.  Amiram Eldar, Aug 06 2020


LINKS

Robert Ferréol, Deltoid, Mathcurve.
Bob Palais, Pi is wrong!, The Mathematical Intelligencer Volume 23, Number 3, 2001, pp. 78.


FORMULA

2*Pi = Sum_{n >= 0} (1)^n*( 1/(n + 1/6) + 1/(n + 5/6) ).
2*Pi = Sum_{n >= 0} (1)^n*( 1/(n + 1/10)  1/(n + 3/10)  1/(n + 7/10) + 1/(n + 9/10) ). Cf. A091925 and A244979. (End)
Equals Gamma(1/6)*Gamma(5/6).
Equals Integral_{x=0..oo} log(1 + 1/x^6) dx.
Equals Integral_{x=0..oo} log(1 + 4/x^2) dx.
Equals Integral_{x=oo..oo} exp(x/6)/(exp(x) + 1) dx.
Equals Sum_{k>=0} 1/((k + 1/4)*(k + 3/4)). (End)


EXAMPLE

6.283185307179586476925286766559005768394338798750211641949889184615632...


MATHEMATICA



PROG

(PARI) default(realprecision, 20080); x=2*Pi; for (n=1, 20000, d=floor(x); x=(xd)*10; write("b019692.txt", n, " ", d)); \\ Harry J. Smith, May 31 2009
(Magma) R:= RealField(100); 2*Pi(R); // G. C. Greubel, Mar 08 2018
(Julia)
using Nemo
RR = RealField(334)
tau = const_pi(RR) + const_pi(RR)
(Python) # Use some guard digits when computing.
# BBP formula P(1, 16, 8, (0, 8, 4, 4, 0, 0, 1, 0)).
from decimal import Decimal as dec, getcontext
def BBPtau(n: int) > dec:
getcontext().prec = n
s = dec(0); f = dec(1); g = dec(16)
for k in range(n):
ek = dec(8 * k)
s += f * ( dec(8) / (ek + 2) + dec(4) / (ek + 3)
+ dec(4) / (ek + 4)  dec(1) / (ek + 7))
f /= g
return s


CROSSREFS



KEYWORD



AUTHOR



STATUS

approved



