
COMMENTS

Even k such that A307437(k/2) is even. Note that k must be divisible by 4.
Write k = r*2^e with odd r. Let s be the smallest odd number such that k  psi(s), t be the smallest number such that r  psi(t), v2(psi(t)) = a, then k is a term <=> a < e, t*2^(e+2) < s, where v2 = A007814 is the 2adic valuation.
Proof: Let m be the smallest number such that k  psi(k).
"<=" If m is odd, then m >= s > t*2^(e+2), but k  psi(t*2^(e+2)), contradicting with minimality of m.
"=>" If a >= e, then m = t is odd. Write m = l*2^b, b >= 4, l odd, then k  lcm(psi(l), 2^(b2)) => r  psi(l) => l >= t. If(v2(psi(l))) < b2, then b2 >= e => t*2^(e+2) <= l*2^b = m < s. If(v2(psi(l))) > b2, then k  psi(l), contradicting with minimality of m. QED.
A special case: suppose k = p*2^e where p is an odd prime. Let q be the smallest number such that p  psi(q), suppose that q = p*2^a*l + 1 < p^2, l odd. Then k is a term <=> a < e; t*2^e + 1 is composite for t = 1, 2, 3; t'*p*2^e + 1 is composite for t < 4*q/p.
Let s be the smallest odd number such that k  psi(s), then k is a term <=> a < e, q*2^(e+2) < s. Suppose that a < e, there are two cases:
(i) s = (p_1)^(e_1)*(p_2)^(e_2), p  psi((p_1)^(e_1)), 2^e  psi((p_2)^(e_2)). Since a < e, p_2 != q, so (p_1)^(e_1) = q, s = q*(t*2^e + 1) with t*2^e + 1 prime.
(ii) s = (p_1)^(e_1), n  psi((p_1)^(e_1)), so s = t'*p*2^e + 1 with t'*p*2^e + 1 prime.
Hence q*2^(e+2) < s <=> t*2^e + 1 is composite for t = 1, 2, 3; t'*p*2^e + 1 is composite for t < 4*q/p. QED.
2^e is a term <=> t*2^e + 1 is composite for t = 1, 2, 3. It follows that this sequence is infinite.
3*2^e is a term <=> t*2^e + 1 is composite for t = 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27.
All terms are divisible by 512. Proof: Write a term k = 2^a*r > 2 with odd r. Suppose the smallest m such that k divides psi(m) is m = 2^e*s with odd s, e >= 1.
i) a <= 1. If s = 1, then k = r divides psi(2^e) => k <= 2r = 2, a contradiction. Hence s > 1, then k = r or 2r divides psi(s).
ii) a = 2. If s has a prime factor congruent to 1 modulo 3, then r  psi(s) => k = 4r divides psi(s). Otherwise, we must have 4  psi(2^e) => e >= 4, then k = 4r divides psi(5*s), a contradiction.
iii) a = 3. If s has a prime factor congruent to 1 modulo 8, then r  psi(s) => k = 8r divides psi(s). Otherwise, we must have 8  psi(3^e) => e >= 5, then k = 8r divides psi(17*s), a contradiction.
The cases a = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 are similar. (End)


EXAMPLE

psi(2048) = 512 is divisible by 512 = 2^9, and there is no odd m < 2048 such that 512  psi(m), so 512 is a term. Also, 512 is a term since 1*512 + 1 = 513 = 3^3 * 19, 2*512 + 1 = 1025 = 5^2 * 41, 3*512 + 1 = 1537 = 29 * 53 are all composite.
psi(47104) = 5632 is divisible by 5632 = 11*2^9, and there is no m < 47104 such that 5632  psi(m), so 5632 is a term. Also, 5632 is a term since t*512 + 1 is composite for t = 1, 2, 3; t*5632 + 1 is composite for t < 4*23/11 (t <= 8).
