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A309205 Denominators of coefficients of odd powers of x in expansion of f(x) = x cos (x cos (x cos( ... . 3
1, 2, 24, 720, 8064, 3628800, 479001600, 87178291200, 2988969984000, 6402373705728000, 2432902008176640000, 1124000727777607680000, 47726800133326110720000, 21225866375084507136000000, 60977668922342772100300800000, 265252859812191058636308480000000 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,2

COMMENTS

f(x) satisfies f(x) = x * cos(f(x)), and the coefficients can be determined from this.

Alternatively, a(n) can be written in terms of (2*n)! as a(n) = (2*n)!/A309206(n).

LINKS

Andrew Howroyd, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..100

W. M. Gosper, Material from Bill Gosper's Computers & Math talk, M.I.T., 1989, i+38+1 pages, annotated and scanned, included with the author's permission. (There are many blank pages because about half of the original pages were two-sided, half were one-sided.)

W. M. Gosper, Superposition of plots -4<z<4 of z, cos z, z cos z, cos( z cos z), z cos(z cos z), ..., Jul 29 2019

EXAMPLE

f(x) = x - (1/2)*x^3 + (13/24)*x^5 - (541/720)*x^7 + (9509/8064)*x^9 - (7231801/3628800)*x^11 + (1695106117/479001600)*x^13 - (567547087381/87178291200)*x^15 + ...

Coefficients are

1, -1/2, 13/24, -541/720, 9509/8064, -7231801/3628800, 1695106117/479001600, -567547087381/87178291200, 36760132319047/2988969984000, -151856004814953841/ 6402373705728000, 113144789723082206461/2432902008176640000, ...

MAPLE

M := 20;

f := add(c[i]*z^(2*i+1), i=0..M);

f := series(f, z, 2*M+3);

f2 := series(z*cos(f)-f, z, 2*M+3);

for i from 0 to M do e[i]:=coeff(f2, z, 2*i+1); od:

elis:=[seq(e[i], i=0..M)]; clis:=[seq(c[i], i=0..M)];

t1 := solve(elis, clis); t2 := op(t1);

t3 := subs(t2, clis);

map(denom, t3);

# Alternative:

G:= f -> f - x*cos(f):

Newt:= unapply( f - G(f)/D(G)(f), f):

ff:= x:

for k from 1 to 5 do

ff:= convert(series(Newt(ff), x, 2^(k+1)), polynom)

od:

seq(denom(coeff(ff, x, 2*i+1), i=0..31); # Robert Israel, Aug 18 2019

MATHEMATICA

seq[n_] := Module[{p, k}, p = 1+O[x]; For[k = 2, k <= n, k++, p = Cos[x*p]]; p] // CoefficientList[#, x^2]& // Denominator;

seq[16] (* Jean-Fran├žois Alcover, Sep 07 2019, from PARI *)

PROG

(PARI) \\ here F(n) gives n terms of power series.

F(n)={my(p=1+O(x)); for(k=2, n, p=cos(x*p)); p}

seq(n)={my(v=Vec(F(n))); vector(n, k, denominator(v[2*k-1]))} \\ Andrew Howroyd, Aug 17 2019

CROSSREFS

Cf. A309204, A309206.

Sequence in context: A069150 A323491 A046977 * A279331 A119699 A137891

Adjacent sequences:  A309202 A309203 A309204 * A309206 A309207 A309208

KEYWORD

nonn,frac

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane, Jul 28 2019

STATUS

approved

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Last modified May 17 19:21 EDT 2022. Contains 353778 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)