

A307378


Irregular triangle T(n, k) read by rows: row n gives the periods of the cycles of binary quadratic forms of discriminant 4*D(n), with D(n) = A000037(n).


1



2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 4, 4, 2, 2, 2, 6, 2, 2, 2, 2, 10, 4, 4, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 6, 6, 2, 2, 6, 6, 6, 6, 4, 4, 2, 2, 4, 4, 2, 6, 2, 2, 4, 4, 10, 2, 2, 4, 4, 8, 8, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 6, 6, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 6, 6, 2, 2, 2, 2, 6, 6, 2, 2, 4, 4, 6, 2, 2, 2, 2, 10, 10, 8, 8, 6, 6, 12, 12, 4, 4, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 6, 2, 2, 6, 6, 6, 6
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OFFSET

1,1


COMMENTS

The length of row n is 2*A307236(n). This the number of primitive reduced binary quadratic forms of discriminant 4*D(n), with D(n) = A000037(n).
The number of cycles in row n is A307359(n), the class number h(n) of binary quadratic forms of discriminant 4*D(n).
The principal cycle starts with F_p(n) = [1, 2*s(n), (D(n) s(n))^2], with s(n) = A000194(n). Its period is A307372(n). This is the only cycle (the class number is 1) for n = 1, 3, 10, 13, 24, ...
For class number h(n) >= 2 the cycles come mostly in pairs of cycles which can be transformed into each other by a sign flip operation on the outer entries of the forms of the cycle (called outer sign flip). Exceptions occur if cycles are identical with their outer sign flipped ones. This happens, e.g., for n = 7 with two cycles: one of length 2 (the principal cycle CR(2)) and one of length 6. This 6cycle is also identical to the outer sign flipped one. See the example below.
See the Buell and ScholzSchoeneberg references for cycles and class number, and also the W. Lang link given in A324251, with Table 2.


REFERENCES

D. A. Buell, Binary Quadratic Forms, Springer, 1989.
A. Scholz and B. Schoeneberg, Einführung in die Zahlentheorie, 5. Aufl., de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, 1973.


LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..105.


FORMULA

T(n, k) = length of kth cycle of reduced forms of discriminant 4*D(n), with D(n) = A000037(n).


EXAMPLE

The irregular triangle T(n, k) begins:
n, D(n) \k 1 2 3 4 ... 2*A307236

1, 2: 2 2
2, 3: 2 2 4
3, 5: 2 2
4, 6: 2 2 4
5, 7: 4 4 8
6, 8: 2 2 4
7, 10: 2 6 8
8, 11: 2 2 4
9, 12: 2 2 4
10, 13: 10 10
11, 14: 4 4 8
12, 15: 2 2 2 2 8
13, 17: 2 2
14, 18: 2 2 4
15, 19: 6 6 12
16, 20: 2 2 4
17, 21: 6 6 12
18, 22: 6 6 12
19, 23: 4 4 8
20, 24: 2 2 4 4 12
...

n = 1, D(1) = 2: the only cycle is the principal 2cycle [[1, 2, 1],[1, 2, 1]] with discriminant 8.
n = 2, D(2) = 3: besides the principal 2cycle [[1, 2, 2], [2, 2, 1]] there is another 2cycle with sign flips in the outer form entries [[2, 2, 1], [1, 2, 2]], all with discriminant 12.
n = 7, D(7) = 10: the principal 2cycle CR(7) is ([1, 6, 1], [1, 6, 1]). The other 6cyle is ([3, 4, 2], [2, 4, 3], [3, 2, 3], [3, 4, 2], [2, 4, 3], [3, 2, 3]). Both cycles are invariant under outer entries sign flips.


CROSSREFS

Cf. A000037, A000194, A307236, A307359, A307372, A324251.
Sequence in context: A072924 A247869 A036263 * A339049 A279401 A168514
Adjacent sequences: A307375 A307376 A307377 * A307379 A307380 A307381


KEYWORD

nonn,tabf


AUTHOR

Wolfdieter Lang, Apr 21 2019


STATUS

approved



