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A240719 Numbers n such that 2^n == 1 (mod (n+1)^2). 9
1092, 3510 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)



There are only two known terms.

If p is in A001220, then p-1 is in the sequence. If n is in the sequence and n+1 is composite, then any prime factor of n+1 is in A001220 (see fifth comment for a proof). In that case, n+1 could be called a 'Wieferich pseudoprime'.

Any further terms are greater than 1.2 * 10^17. - Charles R Greathouse IV, Apr 12 2014

Both known terms have a periodic binary representation (i.e., 1092 = 010001000100, 3510 = 110110110110), so they are terms of A242139. Also, the ratio between those numbers and their divisor sums is 112/39 in both cases (see Dobson's website in the links and also A239875). Are those facts just coincidences? - Felix Fröhlich, Apr 15 2014

Proof of second part of second comment above: Let q be any odd prime factor of (n+1). Since 2 and q^2 are coprime, it follows from Euler's totient theorem (also known as Euler's theorem or Fermat-Euler theorem) that 2^(phi(q^2)) == 1 (mod q^2). Writing phi(q^2) = q^2 - q = q(q-1), one gets 2^(q(q-1)) == 1 (mod q^2). Taking the q-th root of both sides of the congruence yields 2^(q-1) == 1 (mod q^2). Q.E.D. - Felix Fröhlich, Jun 08 2015

If a(3) exists, it corresponds to A001220(3) - 1, i.e., a(3) + 1 must be prime. This can be shown the following way: Assume that a(3) + 1 is composite. Then the theorem from previous comment implies that a(3) + 1 is of the form 1093^x * 3511^y for some x, y >= 0 and x, y not both 0. If x or y is an integer k > 1, then p = 1093 or p = 3511 satisfies 2^(p-1) == 1 (mod p^(2k)). A quick check with PARI shows that neither 1093 nor 3511 satisfies this congruence for any k > 1. This leaves the case where x = y = 1, which can be excluded as well, since 3837523 is not in A001567. Q.E.D. - Felix Fröhlich, Jun 08 2015


Table of n, a(n) for n=1..2.

J. Dobes and M. Kures, Search for Wieferich primes through the use of periodic binary strings, Serdica J. Computing, Volume 4, Number 3, 2010, 293-300.

J. B. Dobson, A note on the two known Wieferich primes

W. Johnson, On the nonvanishing of Fermat quotients (mod p), J. reine angew. Math., Issue 292 (Jan 1977), 196-200

L. C. Washington, On Fermat's last theorem, J. reine angew. Math., Issue 289 (Jan 1977), 115-117


fQ[n_] := PowerMod[2, n, (n + 1)^2] == 1; Select[ Range@ 3600, fQ] (* Robert G. Wilson v, Jun 17 2015 *)


(PARI) isok(n) = lift(Mod(2, (n+1)^2)^n) == 1; \\ Michel Marcus, Apr 12 2014

(PARI) test(lim)=my(t=1); for(i=0, log(lim)\log(1093), my(n=t); while(n<=lim, if(Mod(2, n^2)^(n-1)==1&&n>1, print(n-1)); n*=3511); t*=1093)

test(1.2e17) \\ Test up to the current search bound for Wieferich primes; Charles R Greathouse IV, Apr 12 2014


Cf. A001220, A239875.

Sequence in context: A043856 A043864 A043873 * A239875 A091673 A288097

Adjacent sequences:  A240716 A240717 A240718 * A240720 A240721 A240722




Felix Fröhlich, Apr 11 2014



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Last modified January 27 15:14 EST 2020. Contains 331295 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)