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A171853 Sum of the trapezoid weights of all peakless Motzkin paths of length n (n>=0). 1
0, 0, 0, 1, 3, 8, 20, 49, 119, 291, 715, 1768, 4396, 10983, 27551, 69351, 175081, 443119, 1123963, 2856383, 7271377, 18538391, 47327615, 120972510, 309555666, 792917565, 2032905981, 5216436109, 13395813003, 34425270629, 88527064337 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,5

COMMENTS

A trapezoid in a peakless Motzkin path is a factor of the form U^i H^j D^i (i, j>=1), i being the height of the trapezoid and U=(1,1), H=(1,0), D=(1,-1). A trapezoid in a peakless Motzkin path w is maximal if, as a factor in w, it is not immediately preceded by a U and immediately followed by a D. The trapezoid weight of a peakless Motzkin path is the sum of the heights of its maximal trapezoids. For example, in the peakless Motzkin path w=UH(UHD)D(UUHHDD) we have two maximal trapezoids (shown between parentheses) of heights 1 and 2, respectively. The trapezoid weight of w is 1+2=3. This concept is analogous to the concept of pyramid weight in a Dyck path (see the Denise-Simion paper).

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=0..30.

A. Denise and R. Simion, Two combinatorial statistics on Dyck paths, Discrete Math., 137, 1995, 155-176.

FORMULA

a(n) = Sum(k*A171852(n,k), k>=0).

G.f.=z^3*g/[(1 + z)(1 - z + z^2 - 2z^2*g)(1 - z)^2], where g=g(z) satisfies g=1+zg+z^2*g(g-1).

Conjecture: (-n+1)*a(n) +(3*n-5)*a(n-1) +(-n+7)*a(n-2) -7*a(n-3) -5*a(n-4) -7*a(n-5) +n*a(n-6) +(-3*n+16)*a(n-7) +(n-6)*a(n-8)=0. - R. J. Mathar, Dec 07 2017

EXAMPLE

a(4)=3 because the 4 (=A004148(4)) peakless Motzkin paths of length 4, namely HHHH, HUHD, UHHD and UHDH have trapezoid weights 0, 1, 1 and 1, respectively.

MAPLE

eqg := g = 1+z*g+z^2*g*(g-1): g := RootOf(eqg, g): G := z^3*g/((1+z)*(1-z)^2*(1-z+z^2-2*z^2*g)): Gser := series(G, z = 0, 38): seq(coeff(Gser, z, n), n = 0 .. 35);

CROSSREFS

Cf. A004148, A171852.

Sequence in context: A054192 A124523 A054185 * A330458 A093963 A261233

Adjacent sequences:  A171850 A171851 A171852 * A171854 A171855 A171856

KEYWORD

nonn

AUTHOR

Emeric Deutsch, Feb 08 2010

STATUS

approved

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Last modified January 20 14:02 EST 2020. Contains 331094 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)