

A145905


Square array read by antidiagonals: Hilbert transform of triangle A060187.


12



1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 9, 5, 1, 1, 27, 25, 7, 1, 1, 81, 125, 49, 9, 1, 1, 243, 625, 343, 81, 11, 1, 1, 729, 3125, 2401, 729, 121, 13, 1, 1, 2187, 15625, 16807, 6561, 1331, 169, 15, 1, 1, 6561, 78125, 117649, 59049, 14641, 2197, 225, 17, 1, 1, 19683, 390625, 823543
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OFFSET

0,5


COMMENTS

Definition of the Hilbert transform of a triangular array:
For many square arrays in the database the entries in a row are polynomial in the column index, of degree d say and hence the row generating function has the form P(x)/(1x)^(d+1), where P is some polynomial function. Often the array whose rows are formed from the coefficients of these P polynomials is of independent interest. This suggests the following definition.
Let [L(n,k)]n,k>=0 be a lower triangular array and let R(n,x) := sum {k = 0 .. n} L(n,k)*x^k, denote the nth row generating polynomial of L. Then we define the Hilbert transform of L, denoted Hilb(L), to be the square array whose nth row, n >= 0, has the generating function R(n,x)/(1x)^(n+1).
In this particular case, L is the array A060187, the array of Eulerian numbers of type B, whose row polynomials are the hpolynomials for permutohedra of type B. The Hilbert transform is an infinite Vandermonde matrix V(1,3,5,...).
We illustrate the Hilbert transform with a few examples:
(1) The Delannoy number array A008288 is the Hilbert transform of Pascal's triangle A007318 (view as the array of coefficients of hpolynomials of ndimensional cross polytopes).
(2) The transpose of the array of nexus numbers A047969 is the Hilbert transform of the triangle of Eulerian numbers A008292 (best viewed in this context as the coefficients of hpolynomials of ndimensional permutohedra of type A).
(3) The sequence of Eulerian polynomials begins [1, x, x + x^2, x + 4*x^2 + x^3, ...]. The coefficients of these polynomials are recorded in triangle A123125, whose Hilbert transform is A004248 read as square array.
(4) A108625, the array of crystal ball sequences for the A_n lattices, is the Hilbert transform of A008459 (viewed as the triangle of coefficients of hpolynomials of ndimensional associahedra of type B).
(5) A142992, the array of crystal ball sequences for the C_n lattices, is the Hilbert transform of A086645, the array of hvectors for type C root polytopes.
(6) A108553, the array of crystal ball sequences for the D_n lattices, is the Hilbert transform of A108558, the array of hvectors for type D root polytopes.
(7) A086764, read as a square array, is the Hilbert transform of the rencontres numbers A008290.
(8) A143409 is the Hilbert transform of triangle A073107.


LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=0..58.
Ghislain R. Franssens, On a Number Pyramid Related to the Binomial, Deleham, Eulerian, MacMahon and Stirling number triangles, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 9 (2006), Article 06.4.1.
S. Parker, The Combinatorics of Functional Composition and Inversion, Ph.D. Dissertation, Brandeis Univ. (1993) [From Tom Copeland, Nov 09 2008]


FORMULA

T(n,k) = (2*k + 1)^n, (see equation 4.10 in [Franssens]). This array is the infinite Vandermonde matrix V(1,3,5,7, ....) having a LDU factorization equal to A039755 * diag(2^n*n!) * transpose(A007318).


EXAMPLE

Triangle A060187 (with an offset of 0) begins
1;
1, 1;
1, 6, 1;
so the entries in the first three rows of the Hilbert transform of
A060187 come from the expansions:
Row 0: 1/(1x) = 1 + x + x^2 + x^3 + ...;
Row 1: (1+x)/(1x)^2 = 1 + 3*x + 5*x^2 + 7*x^3 + ...;
Row 2: (1+6*x+x^2)/(1x)^3 = 1 + 9*x + 25*x^2 + 49*x^3 + ...;
The array begins
n\k..0....1.....2.....3......4
================================
0....1....1.....1.....1......1
1....1....3.....5.....7......9
2....1....9....25....49.....81
3....1...27...125...343....729
4....1...81...625..2401...6561
5....1..243..3125.16807..59049
...


MAPLE

T:=(n, k) > (2*k + 1)^n: seq(seq(T(nk, k), k = 0..n), n = 0..10);


CROSSREFS

Cf. A008292, A039755, A052750 (first superdiagonal), A060187, A114172, A145901.
Sequence in context: A124496 A074881 A142992 * A336859 A171435 A144183
Adjacent sequences: A145902 A145903 A145904 * A145906 A145907 A145908


KEYWORD

easy,nonn,tabl


AUTHOR

Peter Bala, Oct 27 2008


STATUS

approved



