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A137731 Repeated set splitting, labeled elements. 4
1, 1, 2, 7, 40, 355, 4720, 91690, 2559980, 101724390, 5724370860, 455400049575, 51225573119870, 8155535394029685, 1840116104410154380, 589128078915179209630, 267942956094193363173030, 173296035183231212307098790, 159532934947213401229226873410 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,3

COMMENTS

Consider a set of n labeled elements. Form all splittings into two subsets. Consider the resulting sets and perform the splittings on all their subsets and so on. a(n+1) = number of splittings of the n-set {1,2,3,...,n}.

E.g. a(4) = 7 because we have {abc}, {ab}{c}, {ac}{b}, {bc}{a}, {{a}{b}}{c}, {{a}{c}}{b}, {{b}{c}}{a}. The case for unlabeled elements is described by A137732. This structure is related to the Double Factorials A000142 for which the recurrence is a(n) = sum(C(n-1,k) *a(k) *a(n-k), k=1..n-1) with a(1)=1, a(2)=1.

See also A137591 = Number of parenthesizings of products formed by n factors assuming noncommutativity and nonassociativity. See also the Catalan numbers A000108.

LINKS

Alois P. Heinz, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..70

FORMULA

a(n) = Sum_{k=1..n-1} S2(n-1,k)*a(k)*a(n-k) with a(1)=1, where S2(n,k) denotes the Stirling numbers of the second kind.

EXAMPLE

{a}.

{ab}, {a}{b}.

{abc}, {ab}{c}, {ac}{b}, {bc}{a}, {{a}{b}}{c}, {{a}{c}}{b}, {{b}{c}}{a}.

{abcd}, {abc}{d}, {abd}{c}, {acd}{b}, {bcd}{a},

{{ab}{c}}{d}, {{ab}{d}}{c}, {{ac}{d}}{b}, {{bc}{d}}{a},

{{ac}{b}}{d}, {{ad}{b}}{c}, {{ad}{c}}{b}, {{bd}{c}}{a},

{{bc}{a}}{d}, {{bd}{a}}{c}, {{cd}{a}}{b}, {{cd}{b}}{a},

{{{a}{b}}{c}}{d}, {{{a}{b}}{d}}{c}, {{{a}{c}}{d}}{b}, {{{b}{c}}{d}}{a},

{{{a}{c}}{b}}{d}, {{{a}{d}}{b}}{c}, {{{a}{d}}{c}}{b}, {{{b}{d}}{c}}{a},

{{{b}{c}}{a}}{d}, {{{b}{d}}{a}}{c}, {{{c}{d}}{a}}{b}, {{{c}{d}}{b}}{a},

{{ab}{cd}}, {{ac}{bd}}, {{ad}{bc}},

{{{a}{b}}{cd}}, {{{a}{c}}{bd}}, {{{a}{d}}{bc}},

{{ab}{{c}{d}}}, {{ac}{{b}{d}}}, {{ad}{{b}{c}}},

{{{a}{b}}{{c}{d}}}, {{{a}{c}}{{b}{d}}}, {{{a}{d}}{{b}{c}}}.

MAPLE

A137731 := proc(n) option remember ; local k ; if n = 1 then 1; else add(combinat[stirling2](n-1, k)*procname(k)*procname(n-k), k=1..n-1) ; fi; end: for n from 1 to 20 do printf("%d, ", A137731(n)) ; od: # R. J. Mathar, Aug 25 2008

MATHEMATICA

a[1] = 1; a[n_] := a[n] = Sum[StirlingS2[n-1, k]*a[k]*a[n-k], {k, 1, n-1}]; Array[a, 20] (* Jean-Fran├žois Alcover, May 18 2018 *)

PROG

Sub A137731() ' This is a VBA program.

Dim n As Long, nstart As Long, nend As Long

Dim k As Long, HSumme As Long, H(100) As Long

nstart = 2

nend = 10

H(1) = 1

For n = nstart To nend

HSumme = 0

For k = 1 To n - 1

HSumme = HSumme + Stirling2(n - 1, k) * H(k) * H(n - k)

Next k

H(n) = HSumme

Next n

Debug.Print H(1), H(2), H(3), H(4), H(5), H(6), H(7), H(8), H(9), H(10)

End Sub

Function Stirling2(n As Long, k As Long)

Dim i As Long, Summe As Long

Summe = 0

For i = 0 To k

Summe = Summe + ((-1) ^ i) * binomial(k, i) * (k - i) ^ n

Next i

Stirling2 = (1 / faculty(k)) * Summe

End Function

Function binomial(m As Long, n As Long)

Dim Result As Long

Result = faculty(m) / (faculty(m - n) * faculty(n))

binomial = Result

End Function

Function faculty(n As Long)

Dim Result As Long, i As Long

Result = 1

For i = 2 To n

Result = Result * i

Next i

faculty = Result

End Function

CROSSREFS

Cf. A000108, A000142, A137591, A137732.

Sequence in context: A132785 A224677 A064626 * A008608 A028441 A006455

Adjacent sequences:  A137728 A137729 A137730 * A137732 A137733 A137734

KEYWORD

nonn

AUTHOR

Thomas Wieder, Feb 09 2008

EXTENSIONS

Extended by R. J. Mathar, Aug 25 2008

STATUS

approved

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Last modified August 2 02:53 EDT 2021. Contains 346409 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)