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 A120898 Cascadence of 1+2x+x^2; a triangle, read by rows of 2n+1 terms, that retains its original form upon convolving each row with [1,2,1] and then letting excess terms spill over from each row into the initial positions of the next row such that only 2n+1 terms remain in row n for n>=0. 10
 1, 2, 1, 2, 5, 6, 5, 2, 5, 16, 22, 18, 14, 12, 5, 16, 54, 78, 72, 58, 43, 38, 37, 16, 54, 186, 282, 280, 231, 182, 156, 128, 123, 124, 54, 186, 654, 1030, 1073, 924, 751, 622, 535, 498, 425, 418, 426, 186, 654, 2338, 3787, 4100, 3672, 3048, 2530, 2190, 1956, 1766 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
 OFFSET 0,2 COMMENTS In this case, the g.f. of column 0, H(x), satisfies: H(x) = H(x*G^2)*G/x where G satisfies: G = x*(1+2G+G^2), so that 1+G = g.f. of Catalan numbers (A000108). More generally, the cascadence of polynomial F(x) of degree d, F(0)=1, is a triangle with d*n+1 terms in row n where the g.f. H(x) of column 0 satisfies: H(x) = H(x*G^d)*G/x where G = x*F(G); thus G = series_reversion(x/F(x)), or, equivalently, [x^n] G = [x^n] x*F(x)^n/n for n>=1. Further, the g.f. of the cascadence triangle for polynomial F(x) of degree d is given by: A(x,y) = ( x*H(x) - y*H(x*y^d) )/( x*F(y) - y ), where H(x) = G*H(x*G^d)/x and G = x*F(G). - Paul D. Hanna, Jul 17 2006 LINKS FORMULA G.f.: A(x,y) = ( x*H(x) - y*H(x*y^2) )/( x*F(y) - y ), where H(x) = G*H(x*G^2)/x, G = x*F(G), F(x)=1+2x+x^2. - Paul D. Hanna, Jul 17 2006 EXAMPLE Triangle begins: 1; 2, 1, 2; 5, 6, 5, 2, 5; 16, 22, 18, 14, 12, 5, 16; 54, 78, 72, 58, 43, 38, 37, 16, 54; 186, 282, 280, 231, 182, 156, 128, 123, 124, 54, 186; 654, 1030, 1073, 924, 751, 622, 535, 498, 425, 418, 426, 186, 654; 2338, 3787, 4100, 3672, 3048, 2530, 2190, 1956, 1766, 1687, 1456, 1452, 1494, 654, 2338; ... Convolution of [1,2,1] with each row produces: [1,2,1]*[1] = [1,2,1]; [1,2,1]*[2,1,2] = [2,5,6,5,2]; [1,2,1]*[5,6,5,2,5] = [5,16,22,18,14,12,5]; [1,2,1]*[16,22,18,14,12,5,16] = [16,54,78,72,58,43,38,37,16]; These convoluted rows, when concatenated, yield the sequence: 1,2,1, 2,5,6,5,2, 5,16,22,18,14,12,5, 16,54,78,72,58,43,38,37,16, ... which equals the concatenated rows of this original triangle: 1, 2,1,2, 5,6,5,2,5, 16,22,18,14,12,5,16, 54,78,72,58,43,38,37,16,54, PROG (PARI) T(n, k)=if(2*n

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Last modified September 21 21:32 EDT 2021. Contains 347605 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)