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A059059 Card-matching numbers (Dinner-Diner matching numbers). 0
1, 0, 0, 0, 6, 36, 0, 324, 0, 324, 0, 36, 12096, 46656, 81648, 93960, 69984, 40824, 11664, 5832, 0, 216, 17927568, 64105344, 109524960, 117863424, 89474544, 49828608, 21352896, 6718464, 1854576, 279936, 69984, 0, 1296 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,5

COMMENTS

This is a triangle of card matching numbers. Two decks each have n kinds of cards, 3 of each kind. The first deck is laid out in order. The second deck is shuffled and laid out next to the first. A match occurs if a card from the second deck is next to a card of the same kind from the first deck. Triangle T(n,k) is the number of ways of achieving exactly k matches (k=0..3n). The probability of exactly k matches is T(n,k)/(3n)!.

Rows are of length 1,4,7,10,...

REFERENCES

F. N. David and D. E. Barton, Combinatorial Chance, Hafner, NY, 1962, Ch. 7 and Ch. 12.

J. Riordan, An Introduction to Combinatorial Analysis, Wiley, 1958, pp. 174-178.

R. P. Stanley, Enumerative Combinatorics Volume I, Cambridge University Press, 1997, p. 71.

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=0..34.

F. F. Knudsen and I. Skau, On the Asymptotic Solution of a Card-Matching Problem, Mathematics Magazine 69 (1996), 190-197.

Barbara H. Margolius, Dinner-Diner Matching Probabilities

B. H. Margolius, The Dinner-Diner Matching Problem, Mathematics Magazine, 76 (2003), 107-118.

S. G. Penrice, Derangements, permanents and Christmas presents, The American Mathematical Monthly 98(1991), 617-620.

Index entries for sequences related to card matching

FORMULA

G.f.: sum(coeff(R(x, n, k), x, j)*(t-1)^j*(n*k-j)!, j=0..n*k) where n is the number of kinds of cards, k is the number of cards of each kind (here k is 3) and R(x, n, k) is the rook polynomial given by R(x, n, k)=(k!^2*sum(x^j/((k-j)!^2*j!))^n (see Stanley or Riordan). coeff(R(x, n, k), x, j) indicates the j-th coefficient on x of the rook polynomial.

EXAMPLE

There are 324 ways of matching exactly 2 cards when there are 2 different kinds of cards, 3 of each in each of the two decks so T(2,2)=324.

MAPLE

p := (x, k)->k!^2*sum(x^j/((k-j)!^2*j!), j=0..k); R := (x, n, k)->p(x, k)^n; f := (t, n, k)->sum(coeff(R(x, n, k), x, j)*(t-1)^j*(n*k-j)!, j=0..n*k);

for n from 0 to 4 do seq(coeff(f(t, n, 3), t, m), m=0..3*n); od;

MATHEMATICA

p[x_, k_] := k!^2*Sum[x^j/((k - j)!^2*j!), {j, 0, k}]; r[x_, n_, k_] := p[x, k]^n; f[t_, n_, k_] := Sum[Coefficient[r[x, n, k], x, j]*(t - 1)^j*(n*k - j)!, {j, 0, n*k}]; Table[ Coefficient[f[t, n, 3], t, m], {n, 0, 4}, {m, 0, 3*n}] // Flatten (* Jean-Fran├žois Alcover, Oct 21 2013, after Maple *)

CROSSREFS

Cf. A008290, A059056-A059071.

Sequence in context: A193000 A193001 A128298 * A304255 A050112 A250202

Adjacent sequences:  A059056 A059057 A059058 * A059060 A059061 A059062

KEYWORD

nonn,tabf,nice

AUTHOR

Barbara Haas Margolius (margolius(AT)math.csuohio.edu)

STATUS

approved

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Last modified September 27 19:34 EDT 2021. Contains 347694 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)