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 A007059 Number of balanced ordered trees with n nodes. (Formerly M0699) 20
 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 14, 24, 43, 77, 140, 256, 472, 874, 1628, 3045, 5719, 10780, 20388, 38674, 73562, 140268, 268066, 513350, 984911, 1892875, 3643570, 7023562, 13557020, 26200182, 50691978, 98182666, 190353370, 369393466, 717457656 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
 OFFSET 0,4 COMMENTS Essentially the same as A079500: a(0)=0 and a(n)=A079500(n-1) for n>=1. Diagonal sums of the "postage stamp" array: for rows n >= -1, column m >= 0 is given by F(n,m)=F(n-1,m)+F(n-2,m)+...+F(n-m,m) with F(0,m)=1 (m >= 0), F(n,m)=0 (n<0) and F(n,0)=0 (n>0). (Rows indicate the required sum, columns indicate the integers available {0,...,m}, entries F(n,m) indicate number of ordered ways sum can be achieved (eg n=3, m=2: 3=1+1+1=1+2=2+1 so F(3,2)=3 ways)). - Richard L. Ollerton (r.ollerton(AT)uws.edu.au) Conjecture: for n>0 a(n+1) is the number of "numbral" divisors of (4^n-1)/3 = A002450(n) (see A048888 for the definition of numbral arithmetic). This has been verified computationally up to n=15. - John W. Layman, Dec 18 2001. This conjecture follows immediately from Proposition 2.3 of Frosini and Rinaldi. - N. J. A. Sloane, Apr 29 2011. Also number of Dyck paths of semi-length n-1 with all peaks at the same height. (not mentioned in Frosini reference) - David Scambler, Nov 19 2010 For n>=1, a(n) is the number of compositions of n where all parts are smaller than the first part, see example. For n>=1, a(n-1) = A079500(n) is the number of compositions of n where no part exceeds the first part, see the example in A079500. [Joerg Arndt, Dec 29 2012] REFERENCES Arnold Knopfmacher and Neville Robbins, Compositions with parts constrained by the leading summand, Ars Combin. 76 (2005), 287-295. N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence). LINKS T. D. Noe and Alois P. Heinz, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..1000 (first 401 terms from T. D. Noe) D. Applegate, M. LeBrun, N. J. A. Sloane, Dismal Arithmetic, J. Int. Seq. 14 (2011) # 11.9.8. A. Frosini and S. Rinaldi, On the Sequence A079500 and Its Combinatorial Interpretations, J. Integer Seq., Vol. 9 (2006), Article 06.3.1. R. Kemp, Balanced ordered trees, Random Structures Algorithms, 5 (1994), pp. 99-121. FORMULA Define generalized Fibonacci numbers by Sum_{h>=0} F(p, h)z^n = z^(p-1)(1-z)/(1-2z+z^p+1). Then a(n) = 1+Sum{2<=h<=n} F(h-1, n-2). G.f.: Sum_{k>0} x^k*(1-2*x+x^2+(1-x)*x^(k+1))/(1-2*x+x^(k+1)). - Vladeta Jovovic, Feb 25 2003 G.f.: -(1+x^2+ 1/(x-1) )*( 1 + x*(x-1)^3*(1-x+x^3)/( Q(0)- x*(x-1)^3*(1-x+x^3)) ), where Q(k) = (x+1)*(2*x-1)*(1-x)^2 + x^(k+2)*(x+x^2+x^3-2*x^4-1 - x^(k+3) + x^(k+5)) - x*(-1+2*x-x^(k+3))*(1-2*x+x^2+x^(k+4)-x^(k+5))*(-1+4*x-5*x^2+2*x^3 - x^(k+2)- x^(k+5) + 2*x^(k+3) - x^(2*k+5) + x^(2*k+6))/Q(k+1) ; (continued fraction). - Sergei N. Gladkovskii, Dec 14 2013 EXAMPLE F(-1,0)=0 so a(0)=0. F(0,0)=1, F(-1,1)=0 so a(1)=1. F(1,0)=0, F(0,1)=1, F(-1,2)=0 so a(2)=1. F(2,0)=0, F(1,1)=1, F(0,2)=1, F(-1,3)=0 so a(3)=2. From Joerg Arndt, Dec 29 2012: (Start) There are a(8)=24 compositions p(1)+p(2)+...+p(m)=8 such that p(k) b(n-1, 0): seq(a(n), n=0..40);  # Alois P. Heinz, May 01 2014 MATHEMATICA f[ n_, m_ ] := f[ n, m ]=Which[ n>0, Sum[ f[ n-i, m ], {i, 1, m} ], n<0, 0, n==0, 1 ] Table[ Sum[ f[ i, n-i ], {i, 0, n} ], {n, -1, 40} ] CROSSREFS Cf. A048888. Sequence in context: A127603 A108351 A038495 * A079500 A108296 A072100 Adjacent sequences:  A007056 A007057 A007058 * A007060 A007061 A007062 KEYWORD nonn,nice,easy AUTHOR N. J. A. Sloane, Mira Bernstein, R. Kemp EXTENSIONS More terms from Vladeta Jovovic, Apr 08 2000 STATUS approved

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Last modified May 26 16:47 EDT 2019. Contains 323597 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)