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A005597 Decimal expansion of the twin prime constant C_2 = Product_{ p prime >= 3 } (1-1/(p-1)^2).
(Formerly M4056)
33
6, 6, 0, 1, 6, 1, 8, 1, 5, 8, 4, 6, 8, 6, 9, 5, 7, 3, 9, 2, 7, 8, 1, 2, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 4, 5, 5, 5, 7, 7, 8, 4, 3, 2, 6, 2, 3, 3, 6, 0, 2, 8, 4, 7, 3, 3, 4, 1, 3, 3, 1, 9, 4, 4, 8, 4, 2, 3, 3, 3, 5, 4, 0, 5, 6, 4, 2, 3, 0, 4, 4, 9, 5, 2, 7, 7, 1, 4, 3, 7, 6, 0, 0, 3, 1, 4, 1, 3, 8, 3, 9, 8, 6, 7, 9, 1, 1, 7, 7, 9 (list; constant; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,1

COMMENTS

C_2 = Product_{ p prime > 2} (p * (p-2) / (p-1)^2) is the 2-tuple case of the Hardy-Littlewood prime k-tuple constant (part of First H-L Conjecture): C_k = Product_{ p prime > k} (p^(k-1) * (p-k) / (p-1)^k).

Although C_2 is commonly called the twin prime constant, it is actually the prime 2-tuple constant (prime pair constant) which is relevant to prime pairs (p, p+2m), m >= 1.

The Hardy-Littlewood asymptotic conjecture for Pi_2m(n), the number of prime pairs (p, p+2m), m >= 1, with p <= n, claims that Pi_2m(n) ~ C_2(2m) * Li_2(n), where Li_2(n) = Integral_{2, n} (dx/log^2(x)) and C_2(2m) = 2 * C_2 * Product_{p prime > 2, p | m} (p-1)/(p-2), which gives: C_2(2) = 2 * C_2 as the prime pair (p, p+2) constant, C_2(4) = 2 * C_2 as the prime pair (p, p+4) constant, C_2(6) = 2* (2/1) * C_2 as the prime pair (p, p+6) constant, C_2(8) = 2 * C_2 as the prime pair (p, p+8) constant, C_2(10) = 2 * (4/3) * C_2 as the prime pair (p, p+10) constant, C_2(12) = 2 * (2/1) * C_2 as the prime pair (p, p+12) constant, C_2(14) = 2 * (6/5) * C_2 as the prime pair (p, p+14) constant, C_2(16) = 2 * C_2 as the prime pair (p, p+16) constant, ... and, for i >= 1, C_2(2^i) = 2 * C_2 as the prime pair (p, p+2^i) constant.

C_2 also occurs as part of other Hardy-Littlewood conjectures related to prime pairs, e.g., the Hardy-Littlewood conjecture concerning the distribution of the Sophie Germain primes (A156874) on primes p such that 2p+1 is also prime.

Another constant related to the twin primes is Viggo Brun's constant B (sometimes also called the twin primes Viggo Brun's constant B_2) A065421, where B_2 = Sum (1/p + 1/q) as (p,q) runs through the twin primes.

Reciprocal of the Selberg-Delange constant A167864. See A167864 for additional comments and references. - Jonathan Sondow, Nov 18 2009

C_2 = Product_{prime p>2} (p-2)p/(p-1)^2 is an analog for primes of Wallis' product 2/Pi = Product_{n=1 to oo} (2n-1)(2n+1)/(2n)^2. - Jonathan Sondow, Nov 18 2009

One can compute a cubic variant, product_{primes >2} (1-1/(p-1)^3) = 0.855392... = (2/3) * 0.6601618...* 1.943596... by multiplying this constant with 2/3 and A082695. - R. J. Mathar, Apr 03 2011

Cohen (1998, p. 7) referred to this number as the "twin prime and Goldbach constant" and noted that, conjecturally, the number of twin prime pairs (p,p+2) with p <= X tends to 2*C_2*X/log(X)^2 as X tends to infinity. - Artur Jasinski, Feb 01 2021

REFERENCES

Henri Cohen, Number Theory, Volume II: Analytic and Modern Tools, GTM Vol. 240, Springer, 2007; see pp. 208-209.

R. Crandall and C. Pomerance, Prime Numbers: A Computational Perspective, Springer, NY, 2001; see p. 11.

Steven R. Finch, Mathematical Constants, Encyclopedia of Mathematics and its Applications, Vol. 94, Cambridge University Press, 2003, pp. 84-93.

Philippe Flajolet and Ilan Vardi, Zeta function Expansions of Classical constants, Feb 18 1996.

G. H. Hardy and E. M. Wright, An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers, 5th ed., Oxford Univ. Press, 1979, ch. 22.20.

N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).

LINKS

Harry J. Smith, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..1001

Folkmar Bornemann, PRIMES Is in P: Breakthrough for "Everyman", Notices Amer. Math. Soc., 50(5) (May 2003), p. 549.

C. K. Caldwell, The Prime Glossary, twin prime constant

Henri Cohen, High-precision computation of Hardy-Littlewood constants, (1998).

Henri Cohen, High-precision computation of Hardy-Littlewood constants. [pdf copy, with permission]

Steven R. Finch, Mathematical Constants, Errata and Addenda, arXiv:2001.00578 [math.HO], 2020, Sec. 2.1.

Philippe Flajolet and Ilan Vardi, Zeta function expansions of some classical constants.

Daniel A. Goldston, Timothy Ngotiaoco and Julian Ziegler Hunts, The tail of the singular series for the prime pair and Goldbach problems, Functiones et Approximatio Commentarii Mathematici, Vol. 56, No. 1 (2017), pp. 117-141; arXiv preprint, arXiv:1409.2151 [math.NT], 2014.

R. J. Mathar, Hardy-Littlewood constants embedded into infinite products over all positive integers, arXiv:0903.2514 [math.NT], 2009-2011, constant T_1^(2).

G. Niklasch, Some number theoretical constants: 1000-digit values. [Cached copy]

G. Niklasch, Twin primes constant.

Simon Plouffe, The twin primes constant.

Simon Plouffe, Plouffe's Inverter, The twin primes constant.

Pascal Sebah (pascal_sebah(AT)ds-fr.com), Numbers, constants and computation (gives 5000 digits).

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Twin Primes Constant.

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Twin Prime Conjecture.

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, k-Tuple Conjecture.

Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Prime Constellation.

John W. Wrench, Jr., Evaluation of Artin's constant and the twin-prime constant, Math. Comp., 15 (1961), 396-398.

FORMULA

Equals prod(k>=2, (zeta(k)*(1-1/2^k))^(-sum(d/k, mu(d)*2^(k/d))/k)). - Benoit Cloitre, Aug 06 2003

Equals 1/A167864. - Jonathan Sondow, Nov 18 2009

EXAMPLE

0.6601618158468695739278121100145557784326233602847334133194484233354056423...

MATHEMATICA

s[n_] := (1/n)*N[ Sum[ MoebiusMu[d]*2^(n/d), {d, Divisors[n]}], 160]; C2 = (175/256)*Product[ (Zeta[n]*(1 - 2^(-n))*(1 - 3^(-n))*(1 - 5^(-n))*(1 - 7^(-n)))^(-s[n]), {n, 2, 160}]; RealDigits[C2][[1]][[1 ;; 105]] (* Jean-François Alcover, Oct 15 2012, after PARI *)

digits = 105; f[n_] := -2*(2^n-1)/(n+1); C2 = Exp[NSum[f[n]*(PrimeZetaP[n+1] - 1/2^(n+1)), {n, 1, Infinity}, NSumTerms -> 5 digits, WorkingPrecision -> 5 digits]]; RealDigits[C2, 10, digits][[1]] (* Jean-François Alcover, Apr 16 2016, updated Apr 24 2018 *)

PROG

(PARI) \p1000; 175/256*prod(k=2, 500, (zeta(k)*(1-1/2^k)*(1-1/3^k)*(1-1/5^k)*(1-1/7^k))^(-sumdiv(k, d, moebius(d)*2^(k/d))/k))

(PARI) prodeulerrat(1-1/(p-1)^2, 1, 3) \\ Amiram Eldar, Mar 12 2021

CROSSREFS

Cf. A065645 (continued fraction), A065646 (denominators of convergents to twin prime constant), A065647 (numerators of convergents to twin prime constant), A062270, A062271, A114907, A065418 (C_3), A167864.

Sequence in context: A334710 A283203 A155742 * A281056 A273989 A197013

Adjacent sequences:  A005594 A005595 A005596 * A005598 A005599 A005600

KEYWORD

cons,nonn,nice

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane

EXTENSIONS

More terms from Vladeta Jovovic, Nov 08 2001

Commented and edited by Daniel Forgues, Jul 28 2009, Aug 04 2009, Aug 12 2009

PARI code removed by D. S. McNeil, Dec 26 2010

STATUS

approved

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Last modified May 16 22:03 EDT 2021. Contains 343955 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)