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A082985 Coefficient table for Chebyshev's U(2*n,x) polynomial expanded in decreasing powers of (-4*(1-x^2)). 11
1, 1, 3, 1, 5, 5, 1, 7, 14, 7, 1, 9, 27, 30, 9, 1, 11, 44, 77, 55, 11, 1, 13, 65, 156, 182, 91, 13, 1, 15, 90, 275, 450, 378, 140, 15, 1, 17, 119, 442, 935, 1122, 714, 204, 17, 1, 19, 152, 665, 1729, 2717, 2508, 1254, 285, 19 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,3

COMMENTS

Sum of row #n = A000204(2n+1).

Row #n has the unsigned coefficients of a polynomial whose roots are 2 sin(2*Pi*k/(2n+1)) [for k=1 to 2n].

The positive roots are the diagonal lengths of a regular (2n+1)-gon, inscribed in the unit circle.

Polynomial of row #n = Sum_{m=0..n} (-1)^m T(n,m) x^(2n-2m).

This is also the unsigned coefficient table of Chebyshev's 2*T(2*n+1,x) polynomials expanded in decreasing odd powers of 2*x. - Wolfdieter Lang, Mar 07 2007

The n-th row are the coefficients of the polynomial S(n) where S(0)=1, S(1)=x+3, and S(n) = (x+2)*S(n-1) - S(n-2) (see Sun link). - Michel Marcus, Mar 07 2016

REFERENCES

J. D'Angelo, Several Complex Variables and the Geometry of Real Hypersurfaces, CRC Press, 1992; see pp. 151,175.

Stephen Eberhart, "Mathematical-Physical Correspondence," Number 37-38, Jan 08, 1982.

Theodore J. Rivlin, Chebyshev polynomials: from approximation theory to algebra and number theory, 2. ed., Wiley, New York, 1990.

LINKS

Vincenzo Librandi, Rows n = 0..100, flattened

K. Dilcher and K. B. Stolarsky, A Pascal-type triangle characterizing twin primes, Amer. Math. Monthly, 112 (2005), 673-681.

Zhi-Hong Sun, Expansions and identities concerning Lucas sequences, Fibonacci Quart. 44 (2006), no. 2, 145-153. See Theorem 3.1

FORMULA

Triangle read by rows: row #n has n+1 terms. T(n,0)=1, T(n,n)=2n+1, T(n,m) = T(n-1,m-1) + Sum_{k=0..m} T(n-1-k, m-k).

T(k, s) = ((2k+1)/(2s+1))*binomial(k+s, 2s), 0 <= s <= k; then transpose the triangle. - Gary W. Adamson, May 29 2003

From Wolfdieter Lang, Mar 07 2007: (Start)

Signed version: a(n,m)=0 if n < m, otherwise a(n,m) = ((-1)^m)*binomial(2*n+1-m,m)*(2*n+1)/(2*n+1-m). From the Rivlin reference, p. 37, eq.(1.92), using the differential eq. for T(2*n+1,x). Also from Waring's formula.

Signed version: a(n,m)=0 if n < m, otherwise a(n,m) = ((-1)^m)*(Sum_{k=0..n-m} binomial(m+k,k)*binomial(2*n+1,2*(k+m))/2^(2*(n-m)). Proof: De Moivre's formula for cos((2*n+1)*phi) rewritten in terms of odd powers of cos(phi). Cf. Rivlin reference p. 4, eq.(1.10).

Signed version: a(n,m) = A084930(n,n-m)/2^(2*(n-m)) (scaled coefficients of Chebyshev's T(2*n+1,x)), decreasing odd powers).

Unsigned version: a(n,m)=0 if n < m, otherwise a(n,m) = binomial(2*n-m,m)*(2*n+1)/(2*(n-m)+1). From the differential eq. for U(2*n,x). (End)

T(n,k) = T(n-1,k) + 2*T(n-1,k-1) - T(n-2,k-2). - Philippe Deléham, Feb 24 2012

Sum_{i>=0} T(n-i,n-2*i) = A003945(n). - Philippe Deléham, Feb 24 2012

Sum_{i>=0} T(n-i, n-2*i)*4^i = 3^n = A000244(n). - Philippe Deléham, Feb 24 2012

EXAMPLE

1

x^2  -  3

x^4  -  5x^2 +  5

x^6  -  7x^4 + 14x^2 -  7

x^8  -  9x^6 + 27x^4 - 30x^2 +  9

x^10 - 11x^8 + 44x^6 - 77x^4 + 55x^2 - 11

Polynomial #4 has 8 roots: 2*sin(2*Pi*k/9) for k=1 to 8.

Coefficients give

  1;

  1,  3;

  1,  5,  5;

  1,  7, 14,  7;

  1,  9, 27, 30,  9;

  1, 11, 44, 77, 55, 11;

  ...

MAPLE

A082985 := proc(n, m)

    binomial(2*n-m, m)*(2*n+1)/(2*n-2*m+1) ;

end proc: # R. J. Mathar, Sep 08 2013

MATHEMATICA

a[n_, m_] := Binomial[2*n-m, m]*(2*n+1)/(2*n-2*m+1); Table[a[n, m], {n, 0, 9}, {m, 0, n}] // Flatten (* Jean-François Alcover, Oct 08 2013, after R. J. Mathar *)

CROSSREFS

Cf. companion triangle A084534.

Cf. Diagonals: A005408, A000330, A005585, A050486, A054333, A057788.

Cf. A054142, A172431.

Sequence in context: A131768 A232632 A084533 * A111125 A209159 A182397

Adjacent sequences:  A082982 A082983 A082984 * A082986 A082987 A082988

KEYWORD

nonn,easy,tabl

AUTHOR

Gary W. Adamson, May 29 2003

EXTENSIONS

Edited by Anne Donovan (anned3005(AT)aol.com), Jun 11 2003

Re-edited by Don Reble, Nov 12 2005

STATUS

approved

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Last modified February 23 12:03 EST 2019. Contains 320431 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)