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A349461 Primes of the form m^2 + 9*m + 81. 3
61, 67, 73, 103, 151, 193, 271, 367, 523, 613, 661, 991, 1117, 1321, 1543, 1621, 1783, 1867, 2131, 2713, 3253, 3967, 4093, 4483, 6067, 6703, 7717, 8803, 9181, 10567, 11617, 11833, 13171, 13633, 14341, 15313 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,1

COMMENTS

3 is a cube mod p for all primes in this list; this is a particular case of a result of Gauss. See Ireland and Rosen, Chapter 9, Exercise 23, p. 135. Some examples are given below.

Primes p such that 4*p - 243 is a square. Let p == 1 (mod 6) be a prime. There are integers c and d such that 4*p = c^2 + 27*d^2 (see, for example, Ireland and Rosen, Proposition 8.3.2). This sequence lists the primes with d = 3. Cf. A005471 (case d = 1) and A227622 (case d = 2).

Primes p of the form m^2 + 9*m + 81 are related to cyclic cubic fields in several ways:

(1) The cubic x^3 - p*x + 3*p, with discriminant ((2*m + 9)*p)^2, is irreducible over Q by Eisenstein's criteria. It follows that the Galois group of the polynomial over Q is the cyclic group C_3 (apply Conrad, Corollary 2.5).

Note that the roots of x^3 - p*x + 3*p are the differences n_0 - n_1, n_1 - n_2 and n_2 - n_0, where n_0, n_1 and n_2 are the three cubic Gaussian periods for the modulus p.

(2) The cubic x^3 - m*x^2 - 3*(m + 9)*x - 27 has discriminant (3*p)^2, a square. This is the polynomial g_3(a, 0, -3; X) in the notation of Hashimoto and Hoshi. The cubic is irreducible over Q by the Rational Root Theorem and hence the Galois group of the polynomial over Q is the cyclic group C_3.

(3) The cubic 3*x^3 + p*(x + 3)^2, with discriminant 81*p^2*(4*p - 243), a square, is irreducible over Q by Eisenstein's criteria. It follows that the Galois group of the polynomial over Q is the cyclic group C_3.

REFERENCES

K. Ireland and M. Rosen, A classical introduction to modern number theory, Vol. 84, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, Springer-Verlag.

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..36.

Peter Bala, Notes on the period polynomial for the cubic Gaussian periods

Keith Conrad, Galois groups of cubics and quartics (not in characteristic 2)

Ki-Ichiro Hashimoto and Akinari Hoshi, Families of cyclic polynomials obtained from geometric generalization of Gaussian period relations, Math. Comp., Vol. 74, No. 251, 2005, pp. 1519-1530

D. H. Lehmer and Emma Lehmer, The Lehmer Project, Math. of Comp., Vol. 61, No. 203, 1993, pp. 313-317.

D. Shanks, The simplest cubic fields, Math. Comp., 28 (1974), 1137-1152

EXAMPLE

61 = (-4)^2 + 9*(-4) + 81; 67 = (-2)^2 + 9*(-2) + 81; 73 = (-1)^2 + 9*(-1) + 81; 103 = (2)^2 + 9*(2) + 81.

3 is a cube mod p:

4^3 == 3 (mod 61); 18^3 == 3 (mod 67); 25^3 == 3 (mod 73); 67^3 == 3 (mod 103).

MATHEMATICA

Select[Table[m^2+9*m+81, {m, -4, 120}], PrimeQ]

PROG

(PARI) for (m = -4, 120, my(p = m^2 + 9*m + 81); if (isprime(p), print1(p, ", ")));

CROSSREFS

Cf. A014753, A005471, A227622.

Sequence in context: A095575 A095563 A014753 * A316933 A255225 A141167

Adjacent sequences:  A349458 A349459 A349460 * A349462 A349463 A349464

KEYWORD

nonn,easy

AUTHOR

Peter Bala, Nov 18 2021

STATUS

approved

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Last modified July 6 06:13 EDT 2022. Contains 355108 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)