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A340309 Number of ordered pairs of vertices which have two different shortest paths between them in the n-Hanoi graph (3 pegs, n discs). 1
0, 6, 48, 282, 1476, 7302, 35016, 164850, 767340, 3546366, 16315248, 74837802, 342621396, 1566620022, 7157423256, 32682574050, 149184117180, 680813718126, 3106475197248, 14173073072922, 64659388538916, 294971717255142, 1345602571317096, 6138257708432850 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,2

COMMENTS

Vertices of the Hanoi graph are configurations of discs on pegs in the Towers of Hanoi puzzle.  Edges are a move of a disc from one peg to another.

The shortest path between a pair of vertices u,v may be unique, or there may be 2 different paths.  a(n) is the number of vertex pairs with 2 shortest paths.  Pairs are ordered, so both u,v and v,u are counted.

For a given vertex u, Hinz et al. characterize and count the destinations v which have 2 shortest paths.  Their total x_n is the number of vertex pairs in the graph of n+1 discs.  The present sequence is for n discs so a(n) = x_{n-1}.

LINKS

Kevin Ryde, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..500

Andreas M. Hinz, Sandi Klavžar, Uroš Milutinović, Daniele Parisse, and Ciril Petr, Metric Properties of the Tower of Hanoi Graphs and Stern's Diatomic Sequence, European Journal of Combinatorics, volume 26, 2005, pages 693-708.  See proposition 3.9.

Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (8,-17,6).

Index entries for sequences related to Towers of Hanoi

FORMULA

With P = (5 + sqrt(17))/2 = A082486, and M = (5 - sqrt(17))/2:

a(n) = (3/(4*sqrt(17)))*( (sqrt(17)+1)*P^n - 2*sqrt(17)*3^n + (sqrt(17)-1)*M^n ). [Hinz et al.]

a(n) = (6/sqrt(17)) * Sum_{k=0..n-1} 3^k * (P^(n-1-k) - M^(n-1-k)) [Hinz et al.].

a(n) = 3*a(n-1) + 6*A107839(n-2), paths within and between subgraphs n-1.

a(n) = 8*a(n-1) - 17*a(n-2) + 6*a(n-3).

a(n) = (A052984(n) - 3^n)*3/2.

G.f.: 6*x^2/((1 - 5*x + 2*x^2)*(1 - 3*x)).

G.f.: (3/2 - 3*x)/(1 - 5*x + 2*x^2) - (3/2)/(1 - 3*x).

EXAMPLE

For n=3 discs, the Hanoi graph is

                *           \

               / \          | top

              A---*         | subgraph,

             /     \        | of n-1 = 2

            B       *       | discs

           / \     / \      |

          C---D---E---*     /

         /             \          two shortest

        *               *           paths for

       / \             / \           A to S

      *---*           *---*          B to T

     /     \         /     \         C to R

    *       *       R       *        C to U

   / \     / \     / \     / \       D to S

  *---*---*---*---S---T---U---*

Going from the top subgraph down to the bottom right subgraph, there are 5 vertex pairs with two shortest paths.  C to R goes around the middle 12-cycle either right or left, and likewise D to S.  The other pairs also go each way around the middle.  There are 6 ordered pairs of n-1 subgraphs repeating these 5 pairs.

Within the n-1 = 2 disc top subgraph, A and E are in separate n-2 subgraphs (unit triangles) and they are the only pair with two shortest paths.  Again 6 combinations of these, and in 3 subgraphs.  Total a(3) = 6*5 + 6*3*1 = 48.

PROG

(PARI) my(p=Mod('x, 'x^2-5*'x+2)); a(n) = (vecsum(Vec(lift(p^(n+1)))) - 3^n)*3/2;

CROSSREFS

Cf. A052984, A107839.

Sequence in context: A056284 A293967 A246587 * A229504 A100740 A043020

Adjacent sequences:  A340306 A340307 A340308 * A340310 A340311 A340312

KEYWORD

nonn,easy

AUTHOR

Kevin Ryde, Jan 04 2021

STATUS

approved

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Last modified May 8 07:02 EDT 2021. Contains 343653 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)