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A327892 a(n) is the smallest positive integer k such that for every prime divisor p_i of 2*n+1, p_i + k is also prime, or 0 if no such k exists. 0
2, 2, 4, 2, 2, 4, 2, 2, 4, 4, 6, 2, 2, 2, 6, 2, 6, 4, 4, 2, 4, 2, 6, 4, 2, 6, 2, 4, 2, 6, 4, 6, 4, 8, 2, 6, 2, 6, 4, 2, 6, 2, 2, 8, 4, 10, 12, 4, 2, 2, 4, 0, 2, 4, 4, 14, 6, 4, 6, 2, 2, 2, 4, 4, 6, 4, 2, 2, 10, 14, 6, 2, 4, 2, 6, 2, 6, 6, 8, 6, 4, 2, 6, 4, 4, 6, 6, 2, 2, 10, 10, 6, 2, 4, 2, 4, 0, 2, 12, 4 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,1

COMMENTS

Conjecture: Every case where there is no solution (a(n)=0) can be proved by a congruency argument: If p is the smallest prime divisor of m=2*n+1 and the factor set P of m contains every residue class (mod p), then there is no k such that for every prime factor q of m, q+k is prime (one such number will be congruent to 0 (mod p), and hence composite (see example)). Furthermore, any other odd number divisible by all the primes which divide m will also be a zero term, irrespective of what its other prime factors may be. It is generally true that where there is a nonzero solution there are infinitely many solutions (i.e., numbers r>k such that p_i+r are all prime). However, there are some (rare?) exceptions: n=40672-> 2*n+1=81345, whose factor set P=[3,5,11,17,29], in which every residue class (mod 5) is present, but not all (mod 3). Since all the factors are the lesser of twin primes, k=2 is a (unique) solution. Similarly, for n=276459319, 2*n+1=552918639; P =[3,7,13,19,37,43,67] contains every residue class (mod 7), but not all (mod 3), and in this case k=4 is a (unique) solution.

The subsequence of numbers m=2*n+1 such that a(m)=0 starts: 105,195,231,285,315,... all having smallest prime factor 3, with factor sets containing every residue class (mod 3). The first zero term with 5 as least prime divisor is 95095 (P=[5,7,11,13,19]).

If 2*n+1 is prime, a(n) is the following prime gap. The sequence of smallest odd numbers having k=2*n starts: 3,7,23,69,93,95,113,....

If P is the set of prime factors of m=2*n+1 and there is no prime p <= |P| such that P contains all residue classes (mod p), then according to Dickson's conjecture there are infinitely many k such that all members of P+k are prime. - Robert Israel, Oct 17 2019

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..100.

EXAMPLE

For n = 46; 2*n+1 = 93 = 3*31. 3+10=13 and 31+10=41; both prime, so a(46)=10.

For n = 52 we have a(n) = 0 as 2*n + 1 = 105 with prime divisors 3, 5 and 7. As they are 0, 2 and 1 (mod 3), we have all classes of mod 3. Adding any k > 0 to each prime divisor will always give a multiple of 3 larger than 3 hence a composite. - David A. Corneth, Sep 29 2019

MAPLE

f:= proc(n) local P, k, i, p, kmax;

  P:= numtheory:-factorset(2*n+1);

  for p in select(isprime, [seq(i, i=3..nops(P), 2)]) do

    if P mod p = {$0..p-1} then

      kmax:= p - min(P); break

    fi

  od;

  for k from 2 by 2 do

    if assigned(kmax) and k > kmax then return 0 fi;

    if andmap(isprime, map(`+`, P, k)) then return k fi;

  od;

end proc:

map(f, [$1..100]); # Robert Israel, Oct 17 2019

PROG

(PARI) isok(f, k) = {my(v = vector(#f, i, f[i]+k)); #select(x->isprime(x), v) == #f; }

a(n) = {my(f = factor(2*n+1)[, 1]); my(vm = Set(f % 3)); if (#vm == 3, return (0)); my(k=1); while (!isok(f, k), k++); k; } \\ Michel Marcus, Oct 17 2019

CROSSREFS

Sequence in context: A090047 A245525 A233412 * A339377 A278266 A088200

Adjacent sequences:  A327889 A327890 A327891 * A327893 A327894 A327895

KEYWORD

nonn

AUTHOR

David James Sycamore, Sep 29 2019

STATUS

approved

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Last modified April 22 07:26 EDT 2021. Contains 343163 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)