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A316261 The number of ways to induce a single pinch on a compact 2-manifold with n handles. (Note: The manifold is embedded in Euclidean 2-space, and each pinch partitions it into at most two submanifolds.) 1
1, 3, 9, 15, 26, 37, 55, 73, 100, 127, 165, 203, 254, 305, 371, 437, 520, 603, 705, 807, 930, 1053, 1199, 1345, 1516, 1687, 1885, 2083, 2310, 2537, 2795, 3053, 3344, 3635, 3961, 4287, 4650, 5013, 5415, 5817, 6260 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,2

COMMENTS

The formula for this sequence can be derived by separating the conformed manifolds into three sets. The first set consists of those conformations where the handles of the manifold are pinched at the boundary, the second set have two or more handles pinched at the interior of the manifold, and the third set are pinched at the boundary and may or may not have handles drawn into this pinch. The order of the first set is n, the order of the second is n - 1, and the order of the third set is given by the following series: (Sum_{k mod 2 = 0..n} (k/2)*(n - k + 1) + (2*(n - k) + (-1)^(n - k) + 3)/4) + (Sum_{j mod 2 = 1..n} ((j + 1)/2)*(n - j + 1)). These can then be combined into a single expression, Sum_{i = 0..n} ((2*i + (-1)^(i + 1) + 1)/4)*(n - i + 1) + ((2*(n - i) + (-1)^(n - i) + 3)/4)*(((-1)^i + 1)/2). The i in this series can be thought of as the number of handles drawn into the central pinch. If one factors out the expressions in the series and simplifies each term individually, the resulting functions can then be combined into a single formula. However, when we add 2n - 1 to this we find that for n = 0 the formula also equals zero. This cannot be, because there is one way to pinch a compact 2-manifold with 0 handles. Therefore, ((-1)^(2^n - 1) + 1)/2 is added as a corrective term for this one case.

REFERENCES

Jonathan L. Gross, Jay Yellen, and Ping Zhang, The Handbook of Graph Theory (Second Edition), CRC Press, 2013, pp. 730-806.

Ana Claudia Nabarro, Juan J. Nuño-Ballesteros, Raúl Oset Sinha, Maria Aparecida Soares Ruas, Contemporary Mathematics: Real and Complex Singularities, American Mathematical Soc., 2014, pp. 50-51.

LINKS

Colin Barker, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..1000

Jonathan L. Gross, Jay Yellen, and Ping Zhang, The Handbook of Graph Theory (Second Edition)

Allen Hatcher, Algebraic Topology (Ch. 0)

Ana Claudia Nabarro, Juan J. Nuño-Ballesteros, Raúl Oset Sinha, Maria Aparecida Soares Ruas, Contemporary Mathematics: Real and Complex Singularities

Pseudomanifold. The Encyclopedia of Mathematics

Joseph Wheat, Visual Example of n = 3

Index entries for linear recurrences with constant coefficients, signature (2,1,-4,1,2,-1).

FORMULA

a(n) = (2*n^3 + 12*n^2 + 73*n + 3*(n + 2)*(-1)^n - 6)/24 + ((-1)^(2^n - 1) + 1)/2.

From Colin Barker, Jul 05 2018: (Start)

G.f.: (1 + x + 2*x^2 - 2*x^3 - 2*x^4 + x^5 + x^6) / ((1 - x)^4*(1 + x)^2).

a(n) = 2*a(n-1) + a(n-2) - 4*a(n-3) + a(n-4) + 2*a(n-5) - a(n-6) for n>6.

(End)

EXAMPLE

For a visual example see links.

MATHEMATICA

a[n_] := (2 n^3 + 12 n^2 + 73 n + 3 (n + 2)*(-1)^n - 6)/24 + ((-1)^(2^n - 1) + 1)/2; Array[a, 50, 0] (* or *)

CoefficientList[ Series[(x^6 + x^5 - 2x^4 - 2x^3 + 2x^2 + x + 1)/((x - 1)^4 (x + 1)^2), {x, 0, 50}], x] (* Robert G. Wilson v, Jul 23 2018 *)

PROG

(PARI) Vec((1 + x + 2*x^2 - 2*x^3 - 2*x^4 + x^5 + x^6) / ((1 - x)^4*(1 + x)^2) + O(x^50)) \\ Colin Barker, Jul 05 2018

CROSSREFS

Cf. A087811.

Sequence in context: A085046 A138495 A055927 * A249734 A319316 A087031

Adjacent sequences:  A316258 A316259 A316260 * A316262 A316263 A316264

KEYWORD

nonn,easy

AUTHOR

Joseph Wheat, Jun 27 2018

STATUS

approved

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Last modified September 18 18:29 EDT 2019. Contains 327180 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)