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A284187 5-untouchable numbers. 4
838, 904, 1970, 2176, 3134, 3562, 4226, 5038, 5580, 6612, 6706, 7096, 7384, 9266, 9530, 10742, 12384, 12592, 12682, 13098, 14846, 15284, 15520, 15578, 15632, 17314, 17602, 18310, 18604, 18808, 19076, 19216, 20380, 20696, 20752, 21182, 21510, 21746, 22444 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,1

COMMENTS

Let sigma(n) denote the sum of divisors of n, and s(n) := sigma(n) - n, with the convention that s(0)=0. Untouchable numbers are those numbers that do not lie in the image of s(n), and they were studied extensively (see the references). In 2016, Pollack and Pomerance conjectured that the set of untouchable numbers has a natural asymptotic density.

Let sk(n) denote the k-th iterate of s(n). 5-untouchable numbers are the numbers that lie in the image of s4(n), but not in the image of s5(n). Question: does the set of 5-untouchable numbers have a natural asymptotic density?

LINKS

Anton Mosunov, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..10000

Kevin Chum, Richard K. Guy, Michael J. Jacobson Jr. and Anton S. Mosunov, Numerical and Statistical Analysis of Aliquot Sequences, arXiv:2110.14136 [math.NT], 2021.

R. K. Guy, J. L. Selfridge, What drives an aliquot sequence?, Math. Comp. 29 (129), 1975, 101-107.

Paul Pollack, Carl Pomerance, Some problems of Erdos on the sum-of-divisors function, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., Ser. B, 3 (2016), 1-26.

Carl Pomerance, The first function and its iterates, A Celebration of the Work of R. L. Graham, S. Butler, J. Cooper, and G. Hurlbert, eds., Cambridge U. Press, to appear.

Carl Pomerance, Hee-Sung Yang, Variant of a theorem of Erdos on the sum-of-proper-divisors function, Math. Comp., 83 (2014), 1903-1913.

EXAMPLE

All even numbers less than 838 have a preimage under s5(n), so they are not 5-untouchable.

a(1) = 838, because 838 = s4(2588) but 2588 is untouchable. Therefore 838 is not in the image of s5(n). Note that 2588 is the only preimage of 838 under s4(n).

a(2) = 904, because 904 = s4(4402) = s4(5378) but both 4402 and 5378 is untouchable.

a(3) = 1970, because 1970 = s4(4312) but 4312 is untouchable.

CROSSREFS

Cf. A005114, A152454, A283152, A284147, A284156.

Sequence in context: A016113 A177846 A167603 * A202716 A118380 A135639

Adjacent sequences:  A284184 A284185 A284186 * A284188 A284189 A284190

KEYWORD

nonn

AUTHOR

Anton Mosunov, Mar 21 2017

STATUS

approved

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Last modified January 25 11:23 EST 2022. Contains 350567 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)