

A264041


a(n) is the maximum number of diagonals that can be placed in an n X n grid made up of 1 X 1 unit squares when diagonals are placed in the unit squares in such a way that no two diagonals may cross or intersect at an endpoint.


8



1, 3, 6, 10, 16, 21, 29, 36, 46, 55, 68, 78, 93, 105, 122, 136, 156, 171, 193, 210, 234, 253, 280, 300, 329, 351
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OFFSET

1,2


COMMENTS

In other words, largest number of nonintersecting vertexdisjoint diagonals / and \ that can be packed in an n X n grid.
/ and \ cannot be adjacent horizontally or vertically.
Two \ cannot be adjacent on a northwesttosoutheast diagonal, two / cannot be adjacent on a southwesttonortheast diagonal.
We also extended this to m X n grids, and have some limited results.
a(n) is the size of a maximum independent set in a graph with vertices (x,y,z), x=1..n, y=1..n, z=1..2, with edges joining (x,y,z) to (x,y,3z), (x+1,y,3z), and (x,y+1,3z), (x,y,1) to (x+1,y1,1) and (x,y,2) to (x+1,y+1,2).  Robert Israel, Nov 01 2015
From Rob Pratt, Nov 09 2015: (Start)
382 <= a(27) <= 383.
a(29) = 440.
For the number of optimal solutions see A264667. (End)


LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..26.
Robert Israel, Optimal configurations for n=1..26
Peter Boyland, Gabriella Pintér, István Laukó, Ivan Roth, Jon E. Schoenfield, and Stephen Wasielewski, On the Maximum Number of Nonintersecting Diagonals in an Array, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 20 (2017), Article 17.2.4.
Robert Israel, Code for MATLAB with CPLEX
Mathematics StackExchange, How to solve 5x5 grid with 16 diagonals
NRICH, Distinct Diagonals
Gabriella Pinter, Figure used to illustrate proof of lower bound in n=6k1 case, k=1,2,3
Gabriella Pinter, Lower bound for the case n = 6k1, Oct 27 2015
Gabriella Pinter, Solution when there are an even number of rows of cells


FORMULA

Theorem: a(2*n) = n*(2n+1) (the evenindexed terms among the triangular numbers A000217). More generally, for the 2k X m case, the optimal solution is k*(m+1). See third Pinter link for proof.
Theorem: a(6*n1) >= n + 3*n*(6*n1). See second Pinter link for proof.
Theorem: a(n) <= a(n2) + 2*n.
Empirical g.f.: x*(1 + 2*x + 2*x^2 + 2*x^3 + 3*x^4 + x^5 + x^6) / ((1  x)^3*(1 + x)^2*(1  x + x^2)*(1 + x + x^2)).  Robert Israel, Nov 01 2015. Corrected by Colin Barker, Jan 31 2018
a(n) = a(n1) + a(n2)  a(n3) + a(n6)  a(n7)  a(n8) + a(n9) for n>9 (conjectured).  Colin Barker, Jan 31 2018


EXAMPLE

For a(2) = 3, an optimal configuration is
//
./
(This is best seen using a fixedwidth font. It is better to use "." instead of " " for blank squares, because " " tends to disappear.)
Note that the bottom left square can't have / because that would conflict with the / at top right, or \ because that would conflict with its horizontal and vertical neighbors.
For a(3) = 6, an optimal configuration is
///
../
/./
For a(4) = 10, an optimal configuration may be depicted, with the grid lines explicitly drawn, as
+++++
/ \\
+++++
/ \ 
+++++
/   
+++++
////
+++++
or, using "o" and "." to represent used and unused vertices, as
.ooo.
/ \\
ooooo
/ \ 
oo.o.
/   
ooooo
////
oooo.
For a(5) = 16, an optimal configuration is
///.\
../.\
\\.\\
\./..
\.///
For more examples, see the link "Optimal configurations for n=1..26".


CROSSREFS

Cf. A000217 (triangular numbers), A260708 (the same?), A264938 (first bisection?), A264667.
Cf. A299017 (intersection with A000217).
Sequence in context: A151375 A310082 A153453 * A260708 A310083 A310084
Adjacent sequences: A264038 A264039 A264040 * A264042 A264043 A264044


KEYWORD

nonn,more,nice


AUTHOR

Gabriella Pinter, Stephen Wasielewski, Peter Boyland, Ivan Roth, G. Christopher Hruska, Jeb Willenbring, Oct 22 2015


EXTENSIONS

Additional comments and terms a(9)a(26) from Robert Israel, Nov 01 2015
This entry is the result of merging two independent submissions, merged by N. J. A. Sloane, Nov 11 2015


STATUS

approved



