

A256672


Number of idempotents in the Motzkin monoid of degree n.


1



1, 2, 7, 31, 153, 834, 4839, 29612, 188695, 1243746, 8428597, 58476481, 413893789, 2980489256, 21787216989, 161374041945, 1209258743839, 9155914963702, 69969663242487, 539189056700627
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OFFSET

0,2


COMMENTS

a(n) is the number of ways of drawing any number of nonintersecting chords joining n (labeled) points on a circle, such that when gluing the second half of one copy to the first half of the other so that each point k along the intersection is glued to n+1k, the result is homotopic to the original.
a(n+1) > a(n) for every n.
The structure of the Motzkin monoid (and particularly its idempotents and some associated orderings) is governed intimately by the combinatorics of socalled Motzkin paths and Motzkin words, which are related to Dyck paths and words respectively by insertion of punctuation into the words, or marking/coloring subpaths.
Bounded above by A026945, strictly for n > 1. Bounded below by the square of A001006, strictly for n > 1.


LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=0..19.
I. Dolinka, J. East et al, Idempotent Statistics of the Motzkin and Jones Monoids, arXiv: 1507.04838 [math.CO], 2015, Table 2.
Tom Halverson, Gelfand Models for Diagram Algebras, Journal of Algebraic Combinatorics (2014).
J. D. Mitchell et al., Semigroups  GAP package, Version 2.7.4, March, 2016.
J. D. Mitchell, Counting idempotents in a monoid of partitions, C++ program, October, 2016
Eliezer Posner, Kris Hatch, Megan Ly, Presentation of the Motzkin Monoid, arXiv:1301.4518 [math.RT], 2013.


EXAMPLE

There is one empty graph, which is idempotent under the composition, hence a(0)=1.
There are two on 1 pair of points, the clique and the discrete graph; both are idempotents under the composition, hence a(1)=2.


CROSSREFS

Cf. A001006, A026945.
Sequence in context: A335868 A126033 A323632 * A007863 A302061 A030823
Adjacent sequences: A256669 A256670 A256671 * A256673 A256674 A256675


KEYWORD

nonn,hard,more


AUTHOR

Nick Loughlin, Apr 07 2015


EXTENSIONS

a(9)a(13) corrected and a(14)a(16) computed using the Semigroups package for GAP added by James Mitchell, Apr 12 2016
a(17)a(19) added by James Mitchell, Apr 01 2017


STATUS

approved



