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A232326 Pierce expansion of 1 to the base Pi. 1
3, 69, 310, 1017, 36745, 214369, 966652, 11159821, 74039764, 550021544, 4481549430, 16543857917, 87205978613, 476981856953, 30989048525367, 203786458494160, 711639924282497, 3174772986229899, 29814569078896025, 100158574806804154 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
0,1
COMMENTS
Let r and b be positive real numbers. We define a Pierce expansion of r to the base b to be a (possibly infinite) increasing sequence of positive integers [a(0), a(1), a(2), ...] such that we have the alternating series representation r = b/a(0) - b^2/(a(0)*a(1)) + b^3/(a(0)*a(1)*a(2)) - .... Depending on the values of r and b such an expansion may not exist, and if it does exist it may not be unique. When b = 1 and 0 < r < 1 we recover the ordinary Pierce expansion of r.
See A058635, A192223 and A230600 for some predictable Pierce expansions to a base b other than 1.
In the particular case that the base b >= 1 and 0 < r < b then we can find a Pierce expansion of r to the base b as follows:
Define the map f(x) (which depends on the base b) by f(x) = x/b*ceiling(b/x) - 1 and let f^(n)(x) denote the n-th iterate of the map f(x), with the convention that f^(0)(x) = x.
For n = 0,1,2,... define a(n) = ceiling(b/f^(n)(-r)) until f^n(-r) = 0.
Then it can be shown that the sequence of positive integers |a(n)| is a Pierce expansion of r to the base b.
For the present sequence we apply this algorithm with r := 1 and with base b := Pi. See A232325 for an Engel expansion of 1 to the base Pi.
LINKS
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Pierce Expansion
FORMULA
a(n) = ceiling(Pi/f^(n)(-1)), where f^(n)(x) denotes the n-th iterate of the map f(x) = x/Pi*ceiling(Pi/x) - 1, with the convention that f^(0)(x) = x.
Pierce series expansion of 1 to the base Pi:
1 = Pi/3 - Pi^2/(3*69) + Pi^3/(3*69*310) - Pi^4/(3*69*310*1017) + ....
The associated power series F(z) := 1 - ( z/3 - z^2/(3*69) + z^3/(3*69*310) - z^4/(3*69*310*1017) + ...) has a zero at z = Pi. Truncating the series F(z) to n terms produces a polynomial F_n(z) with rational coefficients which has a real zero close to Pi.
MAPLE
# Define the n-th iterate of the map f(x) = x/b*ceiling(b/x) - 1
map_iterate := proc(n, b, x) option remember;
if n = 0 then
x
else
-1 + 1/b*thisproc(n-1, b, x)*ceil(b/thisproc(n-1, b, x))
end if
end proc:
# Define the (signed) terms of the expansion of x to the base b
a := n -> ceil(evalf(b/map_iterate(n, b, x))):
Digits:= 500:
# Choose values for x and b
x := -1: b:= Pi:
seq(abs(a(n)), n = 0..19);
CROSSREFS
Sequence in context: A264700 A124181 A046432 * A270869 A241222 A166835
KEYWORD
nonn,easy
AUTHOR
Peter Bala, Nov 26 2013
STATUS
approved

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Last modified May 30 03:30 EDT 2024. Contains 372957 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)