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A143643 Numerators of the lower principal convergents and the lower intermediate convergents to 3^(1/2). 4
1, 3, 5, 12, 19, 45, 71, 168, 265, 627, 989, 2340, 3691, 8733, 13775, 32592, 51409, 121635, 191861, 453948, 716035, 1694157, 2672279, 6322680, 9973081, 23596563, 37220045, 88063572, 138907099, 328657725, 518408351, 1226567328, 1934726305, 4577611587, 7220496869, 17083879020, 26947261171, 63757904493, 100568547815 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,2

COMMENTS

The lower principal and intermediate convergents to 3^(1/2), beginning with 1/1, 3/2, 5/3, 12/7, 19/11, form a strictly increasing sequence; with essentially, numerators being this sequence and denominators being A005246.

sqrt(floor(a(n)^2/3)+1) = A005246(n+1). Also see A082630. - Richard R. Forberg, Nov 14 2013

a(n) = U_n(sqrt(6),1) for n odd and a(n) = 3*U_n(sqrt(6),1) for n even, where U_n(sqrt(R),Q) denotes the Lehmer sequence with parameters R and Q. This sequence is a strong divisibility sequence, that is, gcd(a(n),a(m)) = a(gcd(n,m)) for all positive integers n and m. Consequently, this sequence is a divisibility sequence: if n divides m then a(n) divides a(m). - Peter Bala, Sep 03 2019

REFERENCES

Serge Lang, Introduction to Diophantine Approximations, Addison-Wesley, New York, 1966.

Clark Kimberling, "Best lower and upper approximates to irrational numbers," Elemente der Mathematik, 52 (1997) 122-126.

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..39.

Wikipedia, Lehmer sequence

FORMULA

a(n) = 4*a(n-2)-a(n-4). G.f.: x*(1+3*x+x^2)/(1-4*x^2+x^4). - Colin Barker, Apr 28 2012

EXAMPLE

From Peter Bala, Sep 03 2019: (Start)

If p(n)/q(n) denotes the n-th convergent to the simple continued fraction alpha = [c(0); c(1), c(2), ...] then a lower semiconvergent is a rational number of the form ( p(2*n) + m*p(2*n+1) )/( q(2*n) + m*q(2*n+1) ) where 0 <= m <= c(2*n+2). The lower semiconvergents include the even-indexed convergents p(2*n)/q(2*n) and give an increasing sequence of approximations to alpha from below.

In this case the simple continued fraction expansion sqrt(3) = [1; 1, 2, 1, 2, ...] produces the sequence of convergents (p(n)/q(n))n>=0 = [1/1, 2/1, 5/3, 7/4, 19/11, 26,15, 71/41, ...].

Thus the increasing sequence of lower semiconvergents begins 1/1, (1 + 2)/(1 + 1) = 3/2, (1 + 2*2)/(1 + 2*1) = 5/3, (5 + 7)/(3 + 4) = 12/7, (5 + 2*7)/(3 + 2*4) = 19/11, ... with numerators 1, 3, 5, 12, 19, .... (End)

CROSSREFS

Cf. A002530, A002531, A005246, A082630, A143607, A143609, A143642.

Sequence in context: A010067 A341710 A024458 * A321679 A266819 A245939

Adjacent sequences:  A143640 A143641 A143642 * A143644 A143645 A143646

KEYWORD

nonn,frac,easy

AUTHOR

Clark Kimberling, Aug 27 2008

STATUS

approved

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Last modified June 29 17:41 EDT 2022. Contains 354913 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)