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A032287 "DIK" (bracelet, indistinct, unlabeled) transform of 1,2,3,4,... 5
1, 3, 6, 13, 24, 51, 97, 207, 428, 946, 2088, 4831, 11209, 26717, 64058, 155725, 380400, 936575, 2314105, 5744700, 14300416, 35708268, 89359536, 224121973, 563126689, 1417378191, 3572884062, 9019324297, 22797540648 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,2

COMMENTS

From Petros Hadjicostas, Jun 21 2019: (Start)

Under Bower's transforms, the input sequence c = (c(m): m >= 1) describes how each part of size m in a composition is colored. In a composition (ordered partition) of n >= 1, a part of size m is assumed to be colored with one of c(m) colors.

Under the DIK transform, we are dealing with "dihedral compositions" of n >= 1. These are equivalence classes of ordered partitions of n such that two such ordered partitions are equivalent if one can be obtained from the other by rotation or reflection.

If the input sequence is c = (c(m): m >= 1), denote the output sequence under the DIK transform by b = (b(n): n >= 1); i.e., b(n) = (DIK c)(n) for n >= 1. If C(x) = Sum_{m >= 1} c(m)*x^m is the g.f. of the input sequence c, then the g.f. of b = DIK c is Sum_{n >= 1} b(n)*x^n = -(1/2) * Sum_{d >= 1} (phi(d)/d) * log(1 - C(x^d)) + (1 + C(x))^2/(4 * (1 - C(x^2))) - (1/4).

For the current sequence (a(n): n >= 1), the input sequence is c(m) = m for all m >= 1. That is, we are dealing with the so-called "m-color dihedral compositions". Here, a(n) is the number of dihedral compositions of n where each part of size m may be colored with one of m colors. For the linear and cyclic versions of such m-color compositions, see Agarwal (2000), Gibson (2017), and Gibson et al. (2018).

Since C(x) = x/(1 - x)^2, we have Sum_{n >= 1} a(n) * x^n = (1/2) * Sum_{d >= 1} (phi(d)/d) * log((1 - x^d)^2 / (1 - 3*x^d + x^(2*d))) + (1/2) * x * (1 + x - 2*x^2 + x^3 + x^4)/((1 - x)^2 * (1 + x - x^2) * (1 - x - x^2)), which is the g.f. given by Andrew Howroyd in the PARI program below.

Note that -Sum_{d >= 1} (phi(d)/d) * log (1 - C(x^d)) = Sum_{d >= 1} (phi(d)/d) * log((1 - x^d)^2 / (1 - 3*x^d + x^(2*d))) is the g.f. of the "m-color cyclic compositions" that appear in Gibson (2017) and Gibson et al. (2018). See sequence A032198, which is the CIK transform of sequence (c(m): m >= 1) = (m: m >= 1).

(End)

LINKS

Andrew Howroyd, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..200

A. K. Agarwal, n-colour compositions, Indian J. Pure Appl. Math. 31 (11) (2000), 1421-1427.

C. G. Bower, Transforms (2).

Meghann Moriah Gibson, Combinatorics of compositions, Master of Science, Georgia Southern University, 2017.

Meghann Moriah Gibson, Daniel Gray, and Hua Wang, Combinatorics of n-color compositions, Discrete Mathematics 341 (2018), 3209-3226.

Arnold Knopfmacher and Neville Robbins, Some properties of dihedral compositions, Util. Math. 92 (2013), 207-220.

Index entries for sequences related to bracelets

FORMULA

From Petros Hadjicostas, Jun 21 2019: (Start)

a(n) = ( F(n+4) + (-1)^n * F(n-4) - 2 * (n + 1) + (1/n) * Sum_{d|n} phi(n/d) * L(2*d) )/2 for n >= 4, where F(n) = A000045(n) and L(n) = A000032(n) are the usual n-th Fibonacci and n-th Lucas numbers, respectively.

a(n) = (A032198(n) + A308747(n))/2 for n >= 1.

G.f.: (1/2) * Sum_{d >= 1} (phi(d)/d) * log((1 - x^d)^2 / (1 - 3*x^d + x^(2*d))) + (1/2) * x * (1 + x - 2*x^2 + x^3 + x^4)/((1 - x)^2 * (1 + x - x^2) * (1 - x - x^2)).

(End)

MATHEMATICA

seq[n_] := x(1 + x - 2 x^2 + x^3 + x^4)/((1 - x)^2 (1 - x - x^2)(1 + x - x^2)) + Sum[EulerPhi[d]/d Log[(1 - x^d)^2/(1 - 3 x^d + x^(2d)) + O[x]^(n+1)], {d, 1, n}] // CoefficientList[#, x]& // Rest // #/2&;

seq[30] (* Jean-Fran├žois Alcover, Sep 17 2019, from PARI *)

PROG

(PARI) seq(n)={Vec(x*(1 + x - 2*x^2 + x^3 + x^4)/((1 - x)^2*(1 - x - x^2)*(1 + x - x^2)) + sum(d=1, n, eulerphi(d)/d*log((1 - x^d)^2/(1 - 3*x^d + x^(2*d)) + O(x*x^n))))/2} \\ Andrew Howroyd, Jun 20 2018

CROSSREFS

Cf. A000032, A000045, A001906, A005594, A032198, A088305, A308747.

Sequence in context: A027999 A005196 A320286 * A199403 A006017 A147323

Adjacent sequences:  A032284 A032285 A032286 * A032288 A032289 A032290

KEYWORD

nonn

AUTHOR

Christian G. Bower

STATUS

approved

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Last modified May 17 09:03 EDT 2021. Contains 343969 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)