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A001387 The binary "look and say" sequence. 10
1, 11, 101, 111011, 11110101, 100110111011, 111001011011110101, 111100111010110100110111011, 100110011110111010110111001011011110101, 1110010110010011011110111010110111100111010110100110111011 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
1,2
COMMENTS
I conjecture that the ratio r(n) of the number of "1"s to the number of "0"s in a(n) converges to 5/3 (or some nearby limit). - Joseph L. Pe, Jan 31 2003
The ratio r(n) of the number of "1"s to the number of "0"s in a(n) actually converges to ((101 - 10*sqrt(93))*a^2 + (139 - 13*sqrt(93))*a - 76)/108, where a = (116 + 12*sqrt(93))^(1/3). This ratio has decimal expansion 1.6657272222676... - Nathaniel Johnston, Nov 07 2010 [Corrected by Kevin J. Gomez, Dec 12 2017]
Reading terms as binary numbers and converting to decimal gives A049190. - Andrey Zabolotskiy, Dec 12 2017
From Jianing Song, Oct 05 2022: (Start)
"000" or "11111" never appear in any a(n). Proof:
When "000" appears for the first time in a(n),
- if it reads as "..00 0's", then a(n-1) must contain at least 4 consecutive 0's, which is impossible;
- if it reads as "...000... 0's" or "...000... 1's", then a(n-1) must contain at least 8 consecutive 0's or at least 8 consecutive 1's.
In conclusion, a(n-1) must contain at least 8 consecutive 1's.
When "11111" appears for the first time in a(n),
- if it reads as "...1111 1's", then a(n-1) must contain at least 15 consecutive 1's, which is impossible;
- if it reads as "...111 1's, 1... 0's", then a(n-1) must contain at least 7 consecutive 1's, which is impossible;
- if it reads as "...11 1's, 11... 0's", then a(n-1) must contain at least 3 consecutive 0's;
- if it reads as "...1 1's, 111... 0's", then a(n-1) must contain at least 7 consecutive 0's;
- if it reads as "... 1's, 1111... 0's", then a(n-1) must contain at least 15 consecutive 0's;
- if it reads as "...11111... 0's" or "...11111... 1's", then a(n-1) must contain at least 31 consecutive 0's or at least 31 consecutive 1's.
In conclusion, a(n-1) must contain at least 3 consecutive 0's. Combining these two results, one can easily show that "000" or "11111" cannot appear. (End)
LINKS
J. H. Conway, The weird and wonderful chemistry of audioactive decay, Eureka 46 (1986) 5-16, reprinted in: Open Problems in Communications and Computations, Springer, 1987, 173-188.
Thomas Morrill, Look, Knave, arXiv:2004.06414 [math.CO], 2020.
EXAMPLE
To get the 5th term, for example, note that 4th term has three (11 in binary!) 1's, one (1) 0 and two (10) 1's, giving 11 1 1 0 10 1.
MATHEMATICA
a[1] := 1; a[n_] := a[n] = FromDigits[Flatten[{IntegerDigits[Length[#], 2], First[#]}& /@ Split[IntegerDigits[a[n-1]]]]]; Map[a, Range[20]] (* Peter J. C. Moses, Mar 24 2013 *)
Nest[Append[#, FromDigits@ Flatten@ Map[Reverse /@ IntegerDigits[Tally@ #, 2] &, Split@ IntegerDigits@ Last@ #]] &, {1}, 9] (* Michael De Vlieger, Dec 12 2017 *)
PROG
(Python)
from itertools import accumulate, groupby, repeat
def summarize(n, _): return int("".join(bin(len(list(g)))[2:]+k for k, g in groupby(str(n))))
def aupto(terms): return list(accumulate(repeat(1, terms), summarize))
print(aupto(11)) # Michael S. Branicky, Sep 18 2022
CROSSREFS
Sequence in context: A156668 A103992 A185949 * A358198 A247863 A180280
KEYWORD
nonn,base
AUTHOR
EXTENSIONS
New name from Andrey Zabolotskiy, Dec 13 2017
STATUS
approved

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Last modified April 21 00:22 EDT 2024. Contains 371850 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)