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A344674 a(n) is the maximum value such that there is an n X n binary orthogonal matrix with every row having at least a(n) ones. 0
1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 5, 3, 7, 5, 9, 5, 11 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
The inverse of an orthogonal matrix is its transpose. This implies the dot product of a row with itself must be 1. This further implies the number of ones in each row must be odd. Given that orthogonal matrices form a group, it must be the case the transpose is also an orthogonal matrix. This requires every column of a binary orthogonal matrix also have an odd number of ones. As a result, there will always be an orthogonal matrix of size n X n having rows with n-1 number of ones if n is an even number, namely an all-ones matrix except for zeros down the main diagonal. An n X n orthogonal matrix cannot exist with n-1 ones in each row if n is odd, since n-1 is even.
a(n) = n-1 if n is even.
a(n) < n-1 if n is odd.
There exist 10 X 10 binary orthogonal matrices such that every row has at least 9 ones, but no 10 X 10 binary orthogonal matrix exists with 10 ones in each row, so a(10) = 9.
There exist 9 X 9 binary orthogonal matrices such that every row has at least 5 ones, but no 9 X 9 binary orthogonal matrix exists with 6 or more ones in each row, so a(9) = 5.
Cf. A003053.
Sequence in context: A318661 A089654 A233526 * A097062 A350948 A324894
Nathan J. Russell, May 26 2021
a(11)-a(12) from Martin Ehrenstein, Jun 17 2021

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Last modified June 25 11:48 EDT 2024. Contains 373701 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)