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 A257161 The length of the period under Zagier-reduction of the principal indefinite quadratic binary form of discriminant D(n) = A079896(n). 0
 1, 2, 1, 3, 5, 4, 1, 2, 2, 5, 1, 4, 7, 6, 11, 3, 1, 2, 10, 7, 2, 7, 1, 11, 9, 8, 2, 4, 21, 7, 1, 2, 4, 9, 6, 21, 2, 3, 1, 27, 11, 10, 3, 5, 17, 6, 23, 16, 1, 2, 8, 11, 2, 15, 2, 6, 2, 27, 1 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
 OFFSET 0,2 COMMENTS A binary quadratic form A*x^2 + B*x*y + C*y^2 with integer coefficients A, B, and C and positive discriminant D = B^2 - 4*A*C is Zagier-reduced if A>0, C>0, and B>A+C. (This differs from the classical reduced forms defined by Lagrange.)  There are finitely many Zagier-reduced forms of given discriminant. Zagier defines a reduction operation on binary quadratic forms with positive discriminants, which permutes the reduced forms.  The reduced forms are thereby partitioned into disjoint cycles. There is a unique Zagier-reduced form with A=1 for each discriminant in A079896. The cycle containing this form is the principal cycle.  a(n) is the length of this cycle for the discriminant D=A079896(n). REFERENCES D. B. Zagier, Zetafunktionen und quadratische Korper, Springer, 1981. LINKS FORMULA With D=n^2-4, a(n) equals the number of pairs (a,k) with |k| < sqrt(D), k^2 congruent to D (mod 4), a > (sqrt(D) - k)/2, a exactly dividing (D-k^2)/4. EXAMPLE For n=3, the a(3) = 3 forms in the principal cycle of discriminant A079896(3) = 13 are x^2 + 5*x*y + 3*y^2, 3*x^2 + 5*x*y + y^2, and 3*x^2 + 7*x*y + 3*y^2. CROSSREFS Cf. A226166. Sequence in context: A258244 A258248 A209139 * A253676 A182939 A056943 Adjacent sequences:  A257158 A257159 A257160 * A257162 A257163 A257164 KEYWORD nonn AUTHOR Barry R. Smith, Apr 16 2015 STATUS approved

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Last modified October 7 14:13 EDT 2022. Contains 357271 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)