

A217948


List of numbers 2n for which the riffle permutation permutes all except the first and last of the 2n cards.


3



4, 6, 12, 14, 20, 30, 38, 54, 60, 62, 68, 84, 102, 108, 132, 140, 150, 164, 174, 180, 182, 198, 212, 228, 270, 294, 318, 348, 350, 374, 380, 390, 420, 422, 444, 462, 468, 492, 510, 524, 542, 548, 558, 564, 588, 614, 620, 654, 660, 662, 678, 702, 710, 758, 774, 788, 798
(list;
graph;
refs;
listen;
history;
text;
internal format)



OFFSET

1,1


COMMENTS

With 2n cards, a riffle shuffle can be described as a permutation, where r becomes 2r1 when r <= n and r becomes 2r2n when r > n. The first and last cards are always left unaltered. Sequence A002326 describes the lengths of the longest orbits in the permutation. E.g. when 2n=10, the permutation can be described as (2,3,5,9,8,6)(4,7). The present sequence gives the values of 2n for which there is just one orbit on the 2n2 cards, for example the permutation when 2n=12 is (2,3,5,9,6,11,10,8,4,7) containing all the 10 numbers other than 1 & 12.
Tiago Januario (email, Jan 12 2015; see also reference) conjectures that these terms are always one more than a prime.  N. J. A. Sloane, Mar 02 2015


REFERENCES

Tiago Januario and Sebastian Urrutia, An Analytical Study in Connectivity of Neighborhoods for Single Round Robin Tournaments, 14th INFORMS Computing Society Conference, Richmond, Virginia, January 11{13, 2015, pp. 188199; http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/ics.2015.0014
Tiago Januario, S Urrutia, D de Werra, Sports scheduling search space connectivity: A riffle shuffle driven approach, Discrete Applied Mathematics, Volume 211, 1 October 2016, Pages 113120; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dam.2016.04.018


LINKS

Olivier Gérard and Vincenzo Librandi, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..6000 (first 386 terms from Olivier Gérard).


FORMULA

Apparently a(n) = A179194(n)  1. [Joerg Arndt, Dec 15 2012]
a(n) = 2 * A051733(n). [Joerg Arndt, Dec 15 2012]


MATHEMATICA

(* v8 *) 2*Select[Range[2, 1000], Function[n, Sort[First[First[ PermutationCycles@Join[Table[2r1, {r, 1, n}], Table[2r2n, {r, n+1, 2n}]]]]]== Range[2, 2n1]]] (* Olivier Gérard, Nov 08 2012 *)


CROSSREFS

Equals twice A051733.
Cf. A002326, A051732.
Sequence in context: A310596 A247456 A266383 * A059891 A020213 A011979
Adjacent sequences: A217945 A217946 A217947 * A217949 A217950 A217951


KEYWORD

nonn


AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane, Nov 07 2012, based on an email message from Anthony C Robin.


STATUS

approved



