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A211417 Integral factorial ratio sequence: a(n) = (30*n)!*n!/((15*n)!*(10*n)!*(6*n)!). 7
1, 77636318760, 53837289804317953893960, 43880754270176401422739454033276880, 38113558705192522309151157825210540422513019720, 34255316578084325260482016910137568877961925210286281393760 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
The integrality of this sequence can be used to prove Chebyshev's estimate C(1)*x/log(x) <= #{primes <= x} <= C(2)*x/log(x), for x sufficiently large; the constant C(1) = 0.921292... and C(2) = 1.105550.... Chebyshev's approach used the related step function floor(x) -floor(x/2) -floor(x/3) -floor(x/5) +floor(x/30). See A182067.
This sequence is one of the 52 sporadic integral factorial ratio sequences of height 1 found by V. I. Vasyunin.
The o.g.f. sum {n >= 0} a(n)*z^n is a generalized hypergeometric series of type 8F7 (see Bober, Table 2, Entry 31) and is an algebraic function of degree 483840 over the field of rational functions Q(z) (see Rodriguez-Villegas). Bober remarks that the monodromy group of the differential equation satisfied by the o.g.f. is W(E_8), the Weyl group of the E_8 root system.
See the Bala link for the proof that a(n), n = 0,1,2..., is an integer.
Congruences: a(p^k) == a(p^(k-1)) ( mod p^(3*k) ) for any prime p >= 5 and any positive integer k (write a(n) as C(30*n,15*n)*C(15*n,5*n)/C(6*n,n) and use equation 39 in Mestrovic, p. 12). More generally, the congruences a(n*p^k) == a(n*p^(k-1)) ( mod p^(3*k) ) may hold for any prime p >= 5 and any positive integers n and k. Cf. A295431. - Peter Bala, Jan 24 2020
Frits Beukers, Hypergeometric functions, how special are they?, Notices Amer. Math. Soc. 61 (2014), no. 1, 48--56. MR3137256
J. W. Bober, Factorial ratios, hypergeometric series, and a family of step functions, arXiv:0709.1977 [math.NT], 2007; J. London Math. Soc., 79, Issue 2, (2009), 422-444.
Florian Fürnsinn and Sergey Yurkevich, Algebraicity of hypergeometric functions with arbitrary parameters, arXiv:2308.12855 [math.CA], 2023.
Fernando Rodriguez Villegas, Integral ratios of factorials and algebraic hypergeometric functions, arXiv:math.NT/0701362, 2007.
Fernando Rodriguez Villegas, Mixed Hodge numbers and factorial ratios, arXiv:1907.02722 [math.NT], 2019.
K. Soundararajan, Integral Factorial Ratios, arXiv:1901.05133 [math.NT], 2019.
Wadim Zudilin, Integer-valued factorial ratios, MathOverflow question 26336, 2010.
a(n) ~ 2^(14*n-1) * 3^(9*n-1/2) * 5^(5*n-1/2) / sqrt(Pi*n). - Vaclav Kotesovec, Aug 30 2016
Table[(30 n)!*n!/((15 n)!*(10 n)!*(6 n)!), {n, 0, 5}] (* Michael De Vlieger, Oct 02 2015 *)
(PARI) a(n) = (30*n)!*n!/((15*n)!*(10*n)!*(6*n)!);
vector(10, n, a(n-1)) \\ Altug Alkan, Oct 02 2015
(Magma) [Factorial(30*n)*Factorial(n)/(Factorial(15*n)*Factorial(10*n)*Factorial(6*n)): n in [0..10]]; // Vincenzo Librandi, Oct 03 2015
Sequence in context: A218397 A103617 A213334 * A287246 A022252 A034653
Peter Bala, Apr 11 2012

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