login
The OEIS Foundation is supported by donations from users of the OEIS and by a grant from the Simons Foundation.

 

Logo


Hints
(Greetings from The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences!)
A142995 a(0) = 0, a(1) = 1, a(n+1) = (2*n^2 + 2*n + 3)*a(n) - n^4*a(n-1), n >= 1. 13
0, 1, 7, 89, 1836, 56164, 2390832, 135213840, 9809203968, 888117094656, 98167241088000, 13010123816064000, 2036436482119680000, 371699564417796096000, 78251077775510986752000 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,3

COMMENTS

This is the case m = 1 of the general recurrence a(0) = 0, a(1) = 1, a(n+1) = (2*n^2 + 2*n + m^2 + m + 1)*a(n) - n^4*a(n-1) (we suppress the dependence of a(n) on m), which arises when accelerating the convergence of the series Sum_{k>=1} 1/k^2 for the constant zeta(2). For other cases see A001819 (m=0), A142996 (m=2), A142997 (m=3) and A142998 (m=4).

The solution to the general recurrence may be expressed as a sum: a(n) = n!^2*p_m(n)*Sum_{k = 1..n} 1/(k^2*p_m(k-1)*p_m(k)), where p_m(x) := Sum_{k = 0..m} C(m,k)^2*C(x+k,m) = Sum_{k = 0..m} C(m,k)*C(m+k,k)*C(x,k) is the Ehrhart polynomial of the polytope formed from the convex hull of a root system of type A_m (equivalently, the polynomial that generates the crystal ball sequence for the A_m lattice [Bacher et al.]).

The first few are p_0(x) = 1, p_1(x) = 2*x + 1, p_2(x) = 3*x^2 + 3*x + 1 and p_3(x) = (10*x^3 + 15*x^2 + 11*x + 3)/3. The o.g.f. for the p_m(x) is ((1-t^2)^x/(1-t)^(2x+1))*Legendre_P(x,(1+t^2)/(1-t^2)) = 1 + (2*x+1)*t + (3*x^2+3*x+1)*t^2 + ... [Gogin & Hirvensalo, Theorem 1 with N = -1].

The polynomial p_m(x) is the unique polynomial solution of the difference equation (x+1)^2*f(x+1) + x^2*f(x-1) = (2*x^2 + 2*x + m^2 + m + 1)*f(x), normalized so that f(0) = 1. These polynomials have their zeros on the vertical line Re x = -1/2 in the complex plane; that is, the polynomials p_m(x-1), m = 1,2,3,..., satisfy a Riemann hypothesis (adapt the proof of the lemma on p. 4 of [BUMP et al.]).

The general recurrence in the first paragraph above has a second solution b(n) = n!^2*p_m(n) with initial conditions b(0) = 1, b(1) = m^2 + m + 1. Hence the behavior of a(n) for large n is given by lim n -> infinity a(n)/b(n) = Sum_{k>=1} 1/(k^2*p_m(k-1)*p_m(k)) = 1/((m^2 + m + 1) - 1^4/((m^2 + m + 5) - 2^4/((m^2 + m + 13) - ... - n^4/((2*n^2 + 2*n + m^2 + m + 1) - ...)))) = 2*Sum_{k>=1} (-1)^(k+1)/(m+k)^2. The final equality follows from a result of Ramanujan; see [Berndt, Chapter 12, Corollary to Entry 31] (replace x by 2x+1 in the corollary and apply Entry 14).

For related results see A142999. For corresponding results for the constants e, log(2) and zeta(3) see A000522, A142979 and A143003 respectively.

REFERENCES

Bruce C. Berndt, Ramanujan's Notebooks Part II, Springer-Verlag.

LINKS

Seiichi Manyama, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..252

R. Bacher, P. de la Harpe and B. Venkov, Séries de croissance et séries d'Ehrhart associées aux réseaux de racines, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 325 (Series 1) (1997), 1137-1142.

D. Bump, K. Choi, P. Kurlberg and J. Vaaler, A local Riemann hypothesis, I, Math. Zeit. 233, (2000), 1-19.

N. Gogin and M. Hirvensalo, On the generating function of discrete Chebyshev polynomials, Turku Centre for Computer Science Technical Report No. 819, (2007), 1-8.

FORMULA

a(n) = n!^2*p(n)*Sum_{k = 1..n} 1/(k^2*p(k-1)*p(k)), where p(n) = 2*n+1. Recurrence: a(0) = 0, a(1) = 1, a(n+1) = (2*n^2 + 2*n + 3)*a(n) - n^4*a(n-1). The sequence b(n):= n!^2*p(n) satisfies the same recurrence with the initial conditions b(0) = 1, b(1) = 3. Hence we obtain the finite continued fraction expansion a(n)/b(n) = 1/(3 - 1^4/(7 - 2^4/(15 - 3^4/(27 - ... - (n-1)^4/(2*n^2 - 2*n + 3))))), for n >= 2. Lim_{n -> infinity} a(n)/b(n) = 1/(3 - 1^4/(7 - 2^4/(15 - 3^4/(27 - ... - n^4/((2*n^2 + 2*n + 3) - ...))))) = Sum_{k>=1} 1/(k^2*(4*k^2 - 1)) = 2 - zeta(2).

MAPLE

p := n -> 2*n+1: a := n -> n!^2*p(n)*sum (1/(k^2*p(k-1)*p(k)), k = 1..n): seq(a(n), n = 0..20);

MATHEMATICA

a[n_] := -1/6*n!^2*(2*n*(Pi^2-12) + Pi^2 - 6*(2*n+1)*PolyGamma[1, n+1]) // Simplify; Table[a[n], {n, 0, 14}] (* Jean-François Alcover, Mar 06 2013 *)

CROSSREFS

Cf. A000522, A001819, A003215 (A_2 lattice), A005902 (A_3 lattice), A008384 (A_4 lattice), A008386 (A_5 lattice), A108625, A142979, A142996, A142997, A142998, A143003.

Sequence in context: A295543 A062747 A099719 * A200832 A103064 A244849

Adjacent sequences:  A142992 A142993 A142994 * A142996 A142997 A142998

KEYWORD

easy,nonn

AUTHOR

Peter Bala, Jul 18 2008

STATUS

approved

Lookup | Welcome | Wiki | Register | Music | Plot 2 | Demos | Index | Browse | More | WebCam
Contribute new seq. or comment | Format | Style Sheet | Transforms | Superseeker | Recent
The OEIS Community | Maintained by The OEIS Foundation Inc.

License Agreements, Terms of Use, Privacy Policy. .

Last modified April 21 19:16 EDT 2021. Contains 343156 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)