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A126203 Middle number of a set of 5 consecutive integers whose sum of cubes is a square. 12
0, 2, 3, 27, 98, 120 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
1,2
COMMENTS
That is, numbers n >= 0 such that 5n(n^2+6) is a square.
According to Dickson, Lucas stated that the only terms are 2, 3, 98 and 120 (missing 27).
The Mordell reference shows that there are only finitely many solutions. - Allan Wilks, Mar 10 2007
From Max Alekseyev, Mar 10 2007: (Start)
It can be shown that all such numbers n can be obtained from elements that are perfect squares in the following 3 recurrent sequence:
1) x(0)=0, x(1)=4, x(k+1) = 98*x(k) - x(k-1). If x(k) is a square then n = 30*x(k). In particular: for k=0, we have n=30*x(0)=0, for k=1, we have n=30*x(1)=120.
2) x(0)=1, x(1)=49, x(k+1) = 38*x(k) - x(k-1). If x(k) is a square then n = 2*x(k). In particular: for k=1, we have n=2*x(1)=2, for k=2, we have n=2*x(1)=98.
3) x(0)=1, x(1)=9, x(k+1) = 8*x(k) - x(k-1). If x(k) is a square then n = 3*x(k). In particular: for k=1, we have n=3*x(1)=3, for k=2, we have n=3*x(1)=27.
It also follows that for any such n one of n/2, n/3, or n/30 is a perfect square. I have tested 10^5 terms of each of the recurrent sequences above and found no new perfect squares. (End)
From Warut Roonguthai, Apr 28 2007: (Start)
The sequence is finite because the number of integral points on an elliptic curve is finite; in this case the curve is m^2 = 5n^3 + 30n. Multiplying the equation by 25 and letting y = 5m and x = 5n, we have y^2 = x^3 + 150x. According to Magma, the integral points on this curve are (x, y) = (0, 0), (10, 50), (15, 75), (24, 132), (135, 1575), (490, 10850), (600, 14700). So the list is complete. (End)
This was also confirmed (using Sage) by Jaap Spies, May 27 2007
About the second comment: Lucas, however, did actually include 27 in his original note, which can be seen at the link cited. The mistake appears to have originated with Dickson. - Matt Westwood, Mar 05 2022
REFERENCES
L. E. Dickson, History of the Theory of Numbers, Volume 2, Chapter 21, page 587.
L. J. Mordell, Diophantine Equations, Ac. Press; see Th. 1, Chap. 27, p. 255.
LINKS
L. E. Dickson, History of the Theory of Numbers, Volume 2, Chapter 21, page 587.
Edouard Lucas, Recherches sur l'analyse indéterminée, Bull. Soc. d'Emulation du Département de l'Allier, 12, 1873, 532.
MAPLE
q:= n-> issqr((n^2+6)*5*n):
select(q, [$0..150])[]; # Alois P. Heinz, Mar 08 2022
MATHEMATICA
Select[Partition[Range[-5, 130], 5, 1], IntegerQ[Sqrt[Total[#^3]]]&][[All, 3]] (* Harvey P. Dale, Jan 31 2017 *)
PROG
(PARI) for(n=1, 10^8, if(issquare(5*n*(n*n+6)), print(n)))
CROSSREFS
Sequence in context: A181225 A143876 A184506 * A126655 A242520 A132533
KEYWORD
nonn,fini,full
AUTHOR
Nick Hobson, Mar 10 2007
STATUS
approved

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