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A111000 Integer part of zeta(zeta(n)). 1
2, 5, 12, 27, 58, 120, 245, 498, 1006, 2024, 4064, 8149, 16327, 32692, 65435, 130938, 261966, 524051, 1048260, 2096731, 4193743, 8387860, 16776219, 33553102, 67107091, 134215365, 268432305, 536866711, 1073736223, 2147476181 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

2,1

COMMENTS

Notice the previous term is almost 1/2 the next term. Conjecture: lim_{n -> infinity} zeta(zeta(n))/zeta(zeta(n+1)) = 1/2.

If this sequence were defined instead as a(n) = lim_{k->n+} floor(zeta(zeta(k))), then it would be defined at n=1, with a(1) = 1. - Iain Fox, Sep 16 2020

LINKS

Iain Fox, Table of n, a(n) for n = 2..3321

FORMULA

Zeta(s) = Sum_{n >= 1} 1/n^s.

For n>=2, a(n) = floor(2^n-(4/3)^n-1+gamma+(8/9)^n-(4/5)^n+(2/3)^n). - Benoit Cloitre, Oct 04 2005

a(n) = 2^n-(4/3)^n+O(1) and more precisely lim_{n-->infinity} zeta(zeta(n))-2^n+(4/3)^n+1 = gamma where gamma is the Euler-Mascheroni constant. - Benoit Cloitre, Oct 04 2005

It appears that a(n) is always equal to or 1 greater than round(1/(zeta(n)-1)). - Iain Fox, Oct 27 2017 (edited Nov 22 2017)

From Iain Fox, Nov 22 2017: (Start)

For reference, b(n) = round(1/(zeta(n)-1)) and c(n) = ceiling(gamma(zeta(n)-1)).

a(n) >= b(n) >= c(n). By The Squeeze Theorem, if a(n) = c(n) for some integer n, then a(n) = b(n). (Proved by Iain Fox, Sep 16 2020)

a(n) - c(n) <= 1. (Proved by Iain Fox, Sep 16 2020)

(End)

Proof of above comments from Iain Fox, Sep 16 2020: (Start)

Consider a function f(x) = zeta(x) - 1/(x-1). Lim_{x->infinity} f(x) = 1 and lim_{x->1} f(x) = 0.577... is the Euler-Mascheroni constant. f(x) is strictly increasing, so the range of f(x) on the interval (1, infinity) is (0.577..., 1). a(n) is necessarily greater than or equal to b(n) when f(zeta(n)) >= 1/2. This is the case for n>1. Therefore, a(n) >= b(n).

Consider a function g(x) = 1/(x-1) - gamma(x-1). g(x) is greater than 0 strictly decreasing on the interval (1, 2). Lim_{x->1} g(x) = .577... is the Euler-Mascheroni constant. b(n) is necessarily greater than or equal to c(n) when g(zeta(n)) > 1/2. This is the case for n>3. Since b(2) = c(2) and b(3) = c(3), this proves b(n) >= c(n).

Consider a function h(x) = zeta(x) - gamma(x-1). Lim_{x->1} h(x) = 1.154... is twice the Euler-Mascheroni constant. On the interval (1, 2], h(x) is strictly decreasing and has values on the interval [Pi^2/6-1 = 0.644..., 1.154...). a(n) - c(n) is necessarily less than or equal to 1 when h(zeta(n)) < 2. This is the case for n>1. Therefore a(n) - c(n) <= 1.

(End)

EXAMPLE

a(100) ~ 1267650600228229398378720795167.

a(101) ~ 2535301200456458798836096530474.

a(100)/a(101) ~ 0.49999999999999999959005759..

MATHEMATICA

IntegerPart[Zeta[Zeta[Range[2, 40]]]] (* Harvey P. Dale, Sep 17 2019 *)

PROG

(PARI) zz(n) = for(x=2, n, print1(floor(zeta(zeta(x)))", "))

CROSSREFS

Sequence in context: A288897 A290292 A292799 * A328882 A000325 A076878

Adjacent sequences:  A110997 A110998 A110999 * A111001 A111002 A111003

KEYWORD

easy,nonn

AUTHOR

Cino Hilliard, Sep 30 2005

STATUS

approved

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Last modified June 19 11:17 EDT 2021. Contains 345127 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)