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A277735 Unique fixed point of the morphism 0 -> 01, 1 -> 20, 2 -> 0. 5
0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 1 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,3

COMMENTS

From Clark Kimberling, May 21 2017: (Start)

Let u be the sequence of positions of 0, and likewise, v for 1 and w for 2.  Let U, V, W be the limits of u(n)/n, v(n)/n, w(n)/n, respectively.  Then 1/U + 1/V + 1/W = 1, where

U = 1.8392867552141611325518525646532866...,

V = U^2 = 3.3829757679062374941227085364...,

W = U^3 = 6.2222625231203986266745611011....

If n >=2, then u(n) - u(n-1) is in {1,2,3}, v(n) - v(n-1) is in {2,4,5}, and w(n) - w(n-1) is in {4,7,9}. (u = A277736, v = A277737, w = A277738). (End)

Although I believe the assertions in Kimberling's comment above to be correct, these results are quite tricky to prove, and unless a formal proof is supplied at present these assertions must be regarded as conjectures. - N. J. A. Sloane, Aug 20 2018

From Michel Dekking, Oct 03 2019: (Start)

Here is a proof of Clark Kimberling's conjectures (and more).

The incidence matrix of the defining morphism

    sigma:  0 -> 01, 1 -> 20, 2 -> 0

is  the same as the incidence matrix of the tribonacci morphism

            0 -> 01, 1 -> 02, 2 -> 0

(see A080843  and/or A092782).

This implies that the frequencies  f0, f1 and f2 of the letters 0,1, and 2 in (a(n)) are the same as the corresponding frequencies in the tribonacci word, which are 1/t, 1/t^2  and 1/t^3 (see, e.g., A092782).

Since   U = 1/f0,  V = 1/f1, and W = 1/f2, we conclude that

    U = t = A058265,  V = t^2 = A276800 and W = t^3 = A276801.

The statements on the difference sequences u, v, and w of the positions of 0,1, and 2 are easily verified by applying sigma to the return words of  these three letters.

Here the return words of an arbitrary word w in a sequence x are all the words occurring in x with prefix w that do not have other occurrences of w in them.

The return words of 0 are 0, 01, and 012, which indeed have length 1, 2

and 3. Since

    sigma(0) = 01, sigma(1) = 0120, and sigma(012) = 01200,

one sees that u is the unique fixed point of the morphism

    1 -> 2, 2-> 31, 3 ->311.

With a little more work, passing to sigma^2, and rotating, one can show that v is the unique fixed point of the morphism

    2->52, 4->5224, 5->52244 .

Similarly, w is the unique fixed point of the morphism

    4->94, 7->9447, 9->94477.

Interestingly, the three morphisms having u,v, and w as fixed point are essentially the same morphism (were we replaced sigma by sigma^2) with standard form

    1->12, 2->1223, 3->12233.

(End)

The kind of phenomenon observed at the end of the previous comment holds in a very strong way for the tribonacci word. See Theorem 5.1. in the paper by Huang and Wen. - Michel Dekking, Oct 04 2019

LINKS

N. J. A. Sloane, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..20000

Y.-K. Huang, Z.-Y. Wen, Kernel words and gap sequence of the Tribonacci sequence, Acta Mathematica Scientia (Series B). 36.1 (2016) 173-194.

Victor F. Sirvent, Semigroups and the self-similar structure of the flipped tribonacci substitution, Applied Math. Letters, 12 (1999), 25-29.

Victor F. Sirvent, The common dynamics of the Tribonacci substitutions, Bulletin of the Belgian Mathematical Society-Simon Stevin 7.4 (2000): 571-582.

Index entries for sequences that are fixed points of mappings

MAPLE

with(ListTools);

T:=proc(S) Flatten(subs( {0=[0, 1], 1=[2, 0], 2=[0]}, S)); end;

S:=[0];

for n from 1 to 10 do S:=T(S); od:

S;

MATHEMATICA

s = Nest[Flatten[# /. {0 -> {0, 1}, 1 -> {2, 0}, 2 -> 0}] &, {0}, 10] (* A277735 *)

Flatten[Position[s, 0]] (* A277736 *)

Flatten[Position[s, 1]] (* A277737 *)

Flatten[Position[s, 2]] (* A277738 *)

(* Clark Kimberling, May 21 2017 *)

CROSSREFS

Cf. A277736, A277737, A277738.

Equals A100619(n)-1.

Sequence in context: A321013 A284258 A322389 * A248911 A116681 A131371

Adjacent sequences:  A277732 A277733 A277734 * A277736 A277737 A277738

KEYWORD

nonn

AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane, Nov 07 2016

EXTENSIONS

Name clarified by Michel Dekking, Oct 03 2019

STATUS

approved

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Last modified May 28 21:37 EDT 2020. Contains 334690 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)