login
This site is supported by donations to The OEIS Foundation.

 

Logo


Hints
(Greetings from The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences!)
A105794 Inverse of a generalized Stirling number triangle of first kind. 13
1, -1, 1, 1, -1, 1, -1, 1, 0, 1, 1, -1, 1, 2, 1, -1, 1, 0, 5, 5, 1, 1, -1, 1, 10, 20, 9, 1, -1, 1, 0, 21, 70, 56, 14, 1, 1, -1, 1, 42, 231, 294, 126, 20, 1, -1, 1, 0, 85, 735, 1407, 924, 246, 27, 1, 1, -1, 1, 170, 2290, 6363, 6027, 2400, 435, 35, 1 (list; table; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

0,14

COMMENTS

Inverse of number triangle A105793. Row sums are the generalized Bell numbers A000296.

T(n,k)*(-1)^(n-k) gives the inverse Sheffer matrix of A094645. In the umbral notation (cf. Roman, p. 17, quoted in A094645) this is Sheffer for (1-t,-log(1-t)). - Wolfdieter Lang, Jun 20 2011

From Peter Bala, Jul 10 2013: (Start)

For a graph G and a positive integer k, the graphical Stirling number S(G;k) is the number of partitions of the vertex set of G into k nonempty independent sets (an independent set in G is a subset of the vertices, no two elements of which are adjacent). Omitting the first two rows and columns of this triangle produces the triangle of graphical Stirling numbers of cycles on n vertices (interpreting a 2-cycle as a single edge). In comparison, the classical Stirling numbers of the second kind, A008277, are the graphical Stirling numbers of path graphs on n vertices. See Galvin and Than. See also A227341.

This is the triangle of connection constants for expressing the polynomial sequence (x-1)^n in terms of the falling factorial polynomials, that is, (x-1)^n = sum {k = 0..n} T(n,k)*x_(k), where x_(k) = x*(x-1)*...*(x-k+1) denotes the falling factorial.

The row polynomials are a particular case of the Actuarial polynomials - see Roman 4.3.4.  (End)

REFERENCES

S. Roman, The umbral calculus, Pure and Applied Mathematics 111, Academic Press Inc., New York, 1984. Reprinted by Dover in 2005.

LINKS

Robert Israel, Table of n, a(n) for n = 0..9869

P. Bala, Notes on A105794

P. Bala, A 3 parameter family of generalized Stirling numbers

B. Duncan and R. Peele, Bell and Stirling Numbers for Graphs, Journal of Integer Sequences 12 (2009), article 09.7.1.

D. Galvin and D. T. Thanh, Stirling numbers of forests and cycles, Electr. J. Comb. Vol. 20(1): P73 (2013)

FORMULA

Term k in row n is given by {(-1)^(k+n) * [sum from j=0 to j=k of (-1)^j * binomial(k,j) * (1-j)^n] / k! }; i.e. a finite difference. - Tom Copeland, Jun 05 2006

O.G.F. for row n = n-th finite difference of the Touchard (Bell) polynomials, T(x,j) and so the E.G.F. for these finite differences and therefore the sequence = exp{x*[exp(t)-1]-t} = exp{t*[T(x,.)-1]} umbrally. - Tom Copeland, Jun 05 2006

The e.g.f. A(x,t) = exp(x*(exp(t)-1)-t) satisfies the partial differential equation x*dA/dx - dA/dt = (1-x)*A.

Recurrence relation: T(n+1,k) = T(n,k-1)+(k-1)*T(n,k).

Let f(x) = ((x-1)/x)*exp(x). For n >= 1, the n-th row polynomial R(n,x) = x*exp(-x)*(x*d/dx)^(n-1)(f(x)) and satisfies the recurrence equation R(n+1,x) = (x-1)*R(n,x) + x*R'(n,x). - Peter Bala, Oct 28 2011

Let f(x) = exp(exp(x)-x). Then R(n,exp(x)) = 1/f(x)*(d/dx)^n(f(x)). Similar formulas hold for A008277, A039755, A111577, A143494 and A154537. - Peter Bala, Mar 01 2012

From Peter Bala, Jul 10 2013: (Start)

T(n,k) = sum {i = 0..n-1} (-1)^i*Stirling2(n-1-i,k-1), for n >= 1, k >= 1.

The k-th column o.g.f. is 1/(1+x)*x^k/((1-x)*(1-2*x)*...*(1-(k-1)*x) (the empty product occurring in the denominator when k = 0 and k = 1 is taken equal to 1).

Dobinski-type formula for the row polynomials: R(n,x) = exp(-x)*sum {k >= 0} (k-1)^n*x^k/k!.

Sum {k = 0..n} binomial(n,k)*R(k,x) = n-th Bell polynomial (n-th row polynomial of A048993). (End)

From Peter Bala, Jan 13 2014

T(n,k) = sum {i = 0..n} (-1)^(n-i)*binomial(n,i)*Stirling2(i,k).

T(n,k) = sum {i = 0..n} (-2)^(n-i)*binomial(n,i)*Stirling2(i+1,k+1).

Matrix product P^(-1) * S =  P^(-2) * S1, where P = A007318, S = A048993 and S1 = A008277. (End)

EXAMPLE

The triangle starts with

n=0:  1;

n=1: -1,  1;

n=2:  1, -1, 1;

n=3: -1,  1, 0, 1;

n=4:  1, -1, 1, 2, 1;

n=5: -1,  1, 0, 5, 5, 1;

... - Wolfdieter Lang, Jun 20 2011

MAPLE

B:= Matrix(12, 12, shape=triangular[lower], (n, k) -> combinat:-stirling1(n-1, k-1)+(n-1)*combinat:-stirling1(n-2, k-1)):

A:= B^(-1):

seq(seq(A[i, j], j=1..i), i=1..12); # Robert Israel, Jan 19 2015

CROSSREFS

Cf. A000296 (row sums), A105793 (matrix inverse), A227341.

Cf. A007318, A008277, A048993.

Sequence in context: A126310 A109086 A213620 * A316866 A277007 A160380

Adjacent sequences:  A105791 A105792 A105793 * A105795 A105796 A105797

KEYWORD

easy,sign,tabl

AUTHOR

Paul Barry, Apr 20 2005

STATUS

approved

Lookup | Welcome | Wiki | Register | Music | Plot 2 | Demos | Index | Browse | More | WebCam
Contribute new seq. or comment | Format | Style Sheet | Transforms | Superseeker | Recent | More pages
The OEIS Community | Maintained by The OEIS Foundation Inc.

License Agreements, Terms of Use, Privacy Policy. .

Last modified November 21 09:13 EST 2018. Contains 317431 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)