

A023022


Number of partitions of n into two relatively prime parts. After initial term, this is the "halftotient" function phi(n)/2 (A000010(n)/2).
(Formerly N0058)


46



1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 2, 3, 2, 5, 2, 6, 3, 4, 4, 8, 3, 9, 4, 6, 5, 11, 4, 10, 6, 9, 6, 14, 4, 15, 8, 10, 8, 12, 6, 18, 9, 12, 8, 20, 6, 21, 10, 12, 11, 23, 8, 21, 10, 16, 12, 26, 9, 20, 12, 18, 14, 29, 8, 30, 15, 18, 16, 24, 10, 33, 16, 22, 12, 35, 12, 36, 18, 20, 18, 30, 12, 39, 16, 27, 20, 41, 12
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OFFSET

2,4


COMMENTS

The number of distinct linear fractional transformations of order n. Also the halftotient function can be used to construct a tree containing all the integers. On the zeroth rank we have just the integers 1 and 2 : immediate "ancestors" of 1 and 2 are (1: 3,4,6 2: 5,8,10,12) etc.  Benoit Cloitre, Jun 03 2002
Moebius transform of floor(n/2).  Paul Barry, Mar 20 2005
Also number of different kinds of regular ngons, one convex, the others selfintersecting.  Reinhard Zumkeller, Aug 20 2005
From Artur Jasinski, Oct 28 2008: (Start)
Degrees of minimal polynomials of cos(2*Pi/n). The first few are
1: x  1
2: x + 1
3: 2*x + 1
4: x
5: 4*x^2 + 2*x  1
6: 2*x  1
7: 8*x^3 + 4*x^2  4*x  1
8: 2*x^2  1
9: 8*x^3  6*x + 1
10: 4*x^2  2*x  1
11: 32*x^5 + 16*x^4  32*x^3  12*x^2 + 6*x + 1
These polynomials have solvable Galois groups, so their roots can be expressed by radicals. (End)
a(n) is the number of rationals p/q in the interval [0,1] such that p + q = n.  Geoffrey Critzer, Oct 10 2011.
It appears that, for n > 2, a(n) = A023896(n)/n. Also, it appears that a record occurs at n > 2 in this sequence if and only if n is a prime. For example, records occur at n=5, 7, 11, 13, 17,..., all of which are prime. [John W. Layman, Mar 26 2012]
From Wolfdieter Lang, Dec 19 2013: (Start)
a(n) is the degree of the algebraic number of s(n)^2 = (2*sin(Pi/n))^2, starting at a(1)=1. s(n) = 2*sin(Pi/n) is the length ratio side/R for a regular ngon inscribed in a circle of radius R (in some length units). For the coefficient table of the minimal polynomials of s(n)^2 see A232633.
Because for even n, s(n)^2 lives in the algebraic number field Q(rho(n/2)), with rho(k) = 2*cos(Pi/k), the degree is a(2*l)=A055034(l). For odd n, s(n)^2 is an integer in Q(rho(n)), and the degree is a(2*l+1) = A055034(2*l+1) = phi(2*l+1)/2, l>=1, with Euler's totient phi=A000010 and a(1)=1. See also A232631A232633.
(End)
Also for n>2: number of fractions A182972(k)/A182973(k) such that A182972(k)+A182973(k)=n, A182972(n) and A182973(n) provide an enumeration of positive rationals < 1 arranged by increasing sum of numerator and denominator then by increasing numerator.  Reinhard Zumkeller, Jul 30 2014


REFERENCES

G. Polya and G. Szego, Problems and Theorems in Analysis I (Springer 1924, reprinted 1972), Part Eight, Chap. 1, Sect. 6, Problems 60&61.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).


LINKS

T. D. Noe, Table of n, a(n) for n=2..10000
K. S. Brown, The HalfTotient Tree
Daniele A. Gewurz and Francesca Merola, Sequences realized as Parker vectors of oligomorphic permutation groups, J. Integer Seqs., Vol. 6, 2003.
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Polygon Triangle Picking
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Trigonometry Angles


FORMULA

a(n) = phi(n)/2 for n >= 3.
a(n) = Sum(k/n: 1<=k<n and GCD(n, k)=1) = A023896(n)/n for n>2.  Reinhard Zumkeller, Aug 20 2005
G.f.: x*(x  1)/2 + (1/2)*Sum_{k>=1} mu(k)*x^k/(1  x^k)^2.  Ilya Gutkovskiy, Apr 13 2017


EXAMPLE

a(15)=4 because there are 4 partitions of 15 into two parts that are relatively prime: 14 + 1, 13 + 2, 11 + 4, 8 + 7.  Geoffrey Critzer, Jan 25 2015


MAPLE

P:=proc(q) local a, k, n; for n from 2 to q do a:=0;
for k from 1 to trunc(n/2) do if gcd(k, nk)=1 then a:=a+1; fi; od;
print(a); od; end: P(10^3); # Paolo P. Lava, Apr 13 2016


MATHEMATICA

Table[ EulerPhi[n]/2, {n, 3, 50}]


PROG

(PARI) a(n)=if(n<=2, 1, eulerphi(n)/2);
(PARI) /* for printing minimal polynomials of cos(2*Pi/n) */
default(realprecision, 110);
for(n=1, 33, print(n, ": ", algdep(cos(2*Pi/n), a(n))));
(Haskell)
a023022 n = length [(u, v)  u < [1 .. div n 2],
let v = n  u, gcd u v == 1]
 Reinhard Zumkeller, Jul 30 2014
(Python)
from sympy.ntheory import totient
def a(n): return 1 if n<3 else totient(n)/2 # Indranil Ghosh, Mar 30 2017


CROSSREFS

Cf. A000010, A055684, A046657, A049806, A049703, A062956.
Cf. A181875, A181876, A181877, A183918.
Cf. A023896.
Cf. A182972, A182973, A245718.
Sequence in context: A253630 A104481 A078709 * A177501 A100677 A188637
Adjacent sequences: A023019 A023020 A023021 * A023023 A023024 A023025


KEYWORD

nonn


AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane. This was in the 1973 "Handbook", but then was dropped from the database. Resubmitted by David W. Wilson.


EXTENSIONS

Entry revised by N. J. A. Sloane, Jun 10 2012
Polynomials edited with the consent of Artur Jasinski by Wolfdieter Lang, Jan 08 2011
Name clarified by Geoffrey Critzer, Jan 25 2015


STATUS

approved



