

A002163


Decimal expansion of square root of 5.
(Formerly M0293 N0105)


61



2, 2, 3, 6, 0, 6, 7, 9, 7, 7, 4, 9, 9, 7, 8, 9, 6, 9, 6, 4, 0, 9, 1, 7, 3, 6, 6, 8, 7, 3, 1, 2, 7, 6, 2, 3, 5, 4, 4, 0, 6, 1, 8, 3, 5, 9, 6, 1, 1, 5, 2, 5, 7, 2, 4, 2, 7, 0, 8, 9, 7, 2, 4, 5, 4, 1, 0, 5, 2, 0, 9, 2, 5, 6, 3, 7, 8, 0, 4, 8, 9, 9, 4, 1, 4, 4, 1, 4, 4, 0, 8, 3, 7, 8, 7, 8, 2, 2, 7
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OFFSET

1,1


COMMENTS

Also the limiting ratio of Lucas(n)/Fibonacci(n).  Alexander Adamchuk, Oct 10 2007
Continued fraction expansion is 2 followed by {4} repeated.  Harry J. Smith, Jun 01 2009
This is the first Lagrange number.  Alonso del Arte, Dec 06 2011
Equals Tachiya's product_{n > 0} (1 + 2/A000032(2^n)) = 4*product_{n > 0} (1  1/A000032(2^n)).  Jonathan Sondow, Jan 11 2012
A computation similar with that of the universal parabolic constant, performed on the curve cosh(x) with the parameters of the osculating parabola, gives as result 2*sinh(arccosh(3/2)), that is sqrt(5) instead of 2.2955871... for the parabola.  JeanFrançois Alcover, Jul 18 2013
Because sqrt(5) = 1 + 2*phi, with the golden section phi from A001622, this is an integer in the quadratic number field Q(sqrt(5)).  Wolfdieter Lang, Jan 08 2018
This constant appears in the theorem of Hurwitz on the best approximation of any irrational number with infinitely many rationals: theta  h/k < 1/(sqrt(5)*k^2). See Niven, also for the Hurwitz 1891 reference.  Wolfdieter Lang, May 27 2018


REFERENCES

W. E. Mansell, Tables of Natural and Common Logarithms. Royal Society Mathematical Tables, Vol. 8, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1964, p. XVIII.
Ivan Niven, Diophantine Approximations, Interscience Publishers, 1963, Theorem 1.5, pp. 6, 14.
Clifford A. Pickover, Wonders of Numbers, Oxford University Press, NY, 2001, p. 106.
N. J. A. Sloane, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1973 (includes this sequence).
N. J. A. Sloane and Simon Plouffe, The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Academic Press, 1995 (includes this sequence).


LINKS

Harry J. Smith, Table of n, a(n) for n = 1..20000
M. F. Jones, 22900D approximations to the square roots of the primes less than 100, Math. Comp., 22 (1968), 234235.
Jason Kimberley, Index of expansions of sqrt(d) in base b
D. Merrill, First million digits of square root of 5
Robert Nemiroff and Jerry Bonnell, The first 1 million digits of the square root of 5
Robert Nemiroff and Jerry Bonnell, Plouffe's Inverter, The first 1 million digits of the square root of 5
Clifford A. Pickover, "Wonders of Numbers, Adventures in Mathematics, Mind and Meaning," Zentralblatt review
Jonathan Sondow, Evaluation of Tachiya's algebraic infinite products involving Fibonacci and Lucas numbers, arXiv:1106.4246 [math.NT], 2011; Diophantine Analysis and Related Fields 2011  AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1385, pp. 97100.
Y. Tachiya, Transcendence of certain infinite products, J. Number Theory 125 (2007), 182200.
R. Witula, Ramanujan Cubic Polynomials of the Second Kind, J. Int. Seq. 13 (2010) # 10.7.5, eq. (1).


FORMULA

e^(i*Pi) + 2*phi = sqrt(5).
From Christian Katzmann, Mar 19 2018: (Start)
Equals Sum_{n>=0} 5*(2*n)!/(n!^2*3^(2*n+1)).
Equals Sum_{n>=0} 25*(2*n+1)!/(n!^2*3^(2*n+3)). (End)
Equals 1 + 2*phi. with phi = A001622. An integer number in the real quadratic number field Q(sqrt(5)).  Wolfdieter Lang, May 09 2018


EXAMPLE

2.236067977499789696409173668731276235440618359611525724270897245410520...


MATHEMATICA

RealDigits[N[Sqrt[5], 200]] (* Vladimir Joseph Stephan Orlovsky, May 27 2010 *)


PROG

(PARI) { default(realprecision, 20080); x=sqrt(5); for (n=1, 20000, d=floor(x); x=(xd)*10; write("b002163.txt", n, " ", d)); } \\ Harry J. Smith, Jun 01 2009


CROSSREFS

Cf. A000032, A000045, A001622.
Cf. A040002 (continued fraction).
Sequence in context: A099205 A051005 A266583 * A093422 A297890 A083506
Adjacent sequences: A002160 A002161 A002162 * A002164 A002165 A002166


KEYWORD

nonn,cons


AUTHOR

N. J. A. Sloane


EXTENSIONS

Sequence corrected by Paul Zimmermann, Mar 15 1996
Additional comments from Jason Earls, Mar 26 2001


STATUS

approved



