
COMMENTS

Conjecture: (i) a(n) > 0 for all n > 0, and a(n) = 1 only for n = 16^k*q (k = 0,1,2,... and q = 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 12, 15, 27, 31, 47, 72, 76, 92, 111, 127).
(ii) Let a and b be positive integers with gcd(a,b) odd. Then any positive integer can be written as x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + w^2 with x,y,z,w nonnegative integers and a*x  b*y a power of two (including 2^0 = 1) if and only if (a,b) = (1,1), (2,1), (2,3).
(iii) Let a,b,c be positive integers with a <= b and gcd(a,b,c) odd. Then any positive integer can be written as x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + w^2 with x,y,z,w nonnegative integers and a*x + b*y  c*z a power of two if and only if (a,b,c) is among the triples (1,1,1), (1,1,2), (1,2,1), (1,2,2), (1,3,1), (1,3,2), (1,3,3), (1,3,4), (1,3,5), (1,4,1), (1,4,2), (1,4,3), (1,4,4), (1,5,1), (1,5,2), (1,5,4), (1,5,5,), (1,6,3), (1,7,4), (1,7,7), (1,8,1), (1,9,2), (2,3,1), (2,3,3), (2,3,4), (2,5,1), (2,5,3), (2,5,4), (2,5,5), (2,7,1), (2,7,3), (2,7,7), (2,9,3), (2,11,5), (3,4,3), (7,8,7).
(iv) Let a,b,c be positive integers with b <= c and gcd(a,b,c) odd. Then any positive integer can be written as x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + w^2 with x,y,z,w nonnegative integers and a*x  b*y  c*z a power of two if and only if (a,b,c) is among the triples (2,2,1), (4,2,1), (4,3,1), (4,4,3).
(v) Let a,b,c be positive integers with a <= b, c <= d, and gcd(a,b,c,d) odd. Then any positive integer can be written as x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + w^2 with x,y,z,w nonnegative integers and a*x + b*y  c*z d*w a power of two if and only if (a,b,c,d) is among the quadruples (1,2,1,1), (1,2,1,2), (1,2,1,3), (1,3,1,2), (1,3,2,3), (1,3,2,4), (1,4,1,2), (1,7,2,6), (1,9,1,4), (2,2,2,3), (2,3,1,2), (2,3,1,3), (2,3,2,3), (2,3,6,1), (2,4,1,2), (2,5,1,2), (2,5,2,3), (2,5,3,4), (3,4,1,2), (3,4,1,3), (3,4,1,5), (3,4,2,5), (3,4,3,4), (3,8,1,10), (3,8,2,3), (4,5,1,5).
(vi) Let a,b,c be positive integers with a <= b <= c and gcd(a,b,c,d) odd. Then any positive integer can be written as x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + w^2 with x,y,z,w nonnegative integers and a*x + b*y + c*z d*w a power of two if and only if (a,b,c,d) is among the quadruples (1,1,2,2), (1,1,2,3), (1,1,2,4), (1,2,2,3), (1,2,3,4), (1,2,4,3), (1,2,6,7), (1,3,4,4), (1,4,6,5), (2,3,5,4).
(vii) For any positive integers a,b,c,d, not all positive integers can be written as x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + w^2 with x,y,z,w nonnegative integers and a*x  b*y  c*z d*w a power of two.
(viii) Let a and b be positive integers, and c and d be nonnegative integers. Then, not all positive integers can be written as x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + w^2 with x,y,z,w nonnegative integers and a*x + b*y + c*z + d*w a power of two.
We have verified a(n) > 0 for all n = 1..2*10^7. The conjecture that a(n) > 0 for all n > 0 appeared in arXiv:1701.05868.
