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A273384 Number of active (ON,black) cells in n-th stage of growth of two-dimensional cellular automaton defined by "Rule 659", based on the 5-celled von Neumann neighborhood. 4
1, 5, 17, 49, 81, 121, 169, 225, 289, 361, 441, 529, 625, 729, 841, 961, 1089, 1225, 1369, 1521, 1681, 1849, 2025, 2209, 2401, 2601, 2809, 3025, 3249, 3481, 3721, 3969, 4225, 4489, 4761, 5041, 5329, 5625, 5929, 6241, 6561, 6889, 7225, 7569, 7921, 8281, 8649 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET
0,2
COMMENTS
Initialized with a single black (ON) cell at stage zero.
REFERENCES
S. Wolfram, A New Kind of Science, Wolfram Media, 2002; p. 170.
LINKS
N. J. A. Sloane, On the Number of ON Cells in Cellular Automata, arXiv:1503.01168 [math.CO], 2015
Eric Weisstein's World of Mathematics, Elementary Cellular Automaton
FORMULA
Conjectures from Colin Barker, May 21 2016: (Start)
a(n) = (1+2*n)^2 for n>2.
a(n) = 3*a(n-1)-3*a(n-2)+a(n-3) for n>5.
G.f.: (1+2*x+5*x^2+12*x^3-20*x^4+8*x^5) / (1-x)^3.
(End)
MATHEMATICA
CAStep[rule_, a_]:=Map[rule[[10-#]]&, ListConvolve[{{0, 2, 0}, {2, 1, 2}, {0, 2, 0}}, a, 2], {2}];
code=659; stages=128;
rule=IntegerDigits[code, 2, 10];
g=2*stages+1; (* Maximum size of grid *)
a=PadLeft[{{1}}, {g, g}, 0, Floor[{g, g}/2]]; (* Initial ON cell on grid *)
ca=a;
ca=Table[ca=CAStep[rule, ca], {n, 1, stages+1}];
PrependTo[ca, a];
(* Trim full grid to reflect growth by one cell at each stage *)
k=(Length[ca[[1]]]+1)/2;
ca=Table[Table[Part[ca[[n]][[j]], Range[k+1-n, k-1+n]], {j, k+1-n, k-1+n}], {n, 1, k}];
Map[Function[Apply[Plus, Flatten[#1]]], ca] (* Count ON cells at each stage *)
CROSSREFS
Sequence in context: A320854 A136303 A268783 * A006457 A115981 A083091
KEYWORD
nonn,easy
AUTHOR
Robert Price, May 21 2016
STATUS
approved

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Last modified February 23 11:40 EST 2024. Contains 370283 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)