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A129816 Numbers n such that there do not exist two consecutive primes whose product + n is a square. 1
2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 20, 22, 24, 27, 28, 31, 32, 33, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 45, 48, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61, 63, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 79, 80, 84, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 96, 97, 98, 99, 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, 111, 112, 114, 116, 120 (list; graph; refs; listen; history; text; internal format)
OFFSET

1,1

COMMENTS

For twin primes and k=1, p(n)*p(n+1)+k is always a square. This follows from the fact that for any number x, x(x+2) + 1 = x^2+2x+1 = (x+1)^2. Since twin primes differ by 2, the product of twin primes + 1 is a square (A075369), and 1 is not in the sequence.

Note that the product of the special case of the first 2 consecutive primes 2 and 3 will produce infinitely many squares. 6+3 = 9, 6+10 = 16. 6+k = y^2 or k=y^2 - 6 for y > 4. This leaves us the cases for p(n) > 2 to prove the instances of k such that p(n)*p(n+1) + k != y^2.

Case k=2: Let x = p(n) and x+2m = p(n+1) since the next prime is a multiple of 2 away from the current prime. Now assume x^2+2mx + 2 = y^2.

Completing the square and rearranging terms, we have x^2 + 2mx + m^2 = y^2 -2 + m^2 or (x+m)^2 = y^2 - 2 + m^2 = z^2. Then y^2-z^2 = 2 - m^2. So m=1 is the only possibility.

This gives y^2-z^2 = 1 or y-z= and y+z=1, impossible.

This contradicts the assumption x^2+2mx+2 = y^2 so there are no consecutive primes such that p(n)*p(n+1)+k = y^2.

Case 5: Using the arguments for Case 2, c. so m = 1,2 are the only ppossibilities and y^2-z^2 = 4 or y^2-z^2 = 1 have no integer solutions.

Case 7: y^-z^2 = 7 - m^2. m = 1,2. y^2-z^2 = 6 has no integer solutions. For y^2-z^2 = 3 we have y-z = 1 y+z = 3 y = 2, z=1. Then x^2-2xm+7 = y^2 becomes x^2-2x+3 = 0 which has no integer solution.

Let us consider a working case for k = 14. y^-z^2 = 14 - m^2. m = 1,2,3. For m=1 y-z = 1 y+z = 13 y = 7 Then substituting m,y into x^2 + 2mx + 14 = y^2 we get x^2+2x + 14 = 49. Completing the square we get (x+1)^2 = 49-14+1 = 36 and x=5. So 5*7+14 = 49. I do not see a general proof for all cases that p(n)*p(n+1) + k != y^2.

Complement of A129783. [From Omar E. Pol, Dec 26 2008]

LINKS

Table of n, a(n) for n=1..68.

PROG

(PARI) primesq2(n) = {local(x); for(x=1, n, if(primesq(10000, x)==0, print1(x", ") ) ) } primesq(n, m) = { local(c, k, x, p1, p2, j); c=0; for(k=m, m, for(x=1, n, p1=prime(x); p2=(prime(x+1)); y=p1*p2+k; if(issquare(y), c++; \ print1(k", "); break; ) ) ); c; }

CROSSREFS

Cf. A129783. [From Omar E. Pol, Dec 26 2008]

Sequence in context: A028726 A047269 A039027 * A137708 A122806 A122546

Adjacent sequences:  A129813 A129814 A129815 * A129817 A129818 A129819

KEYWORD

easy,nonn,uned

AUTHOR

Cino Hilliard, May 20 2007

EXTENSIONS

There is probably no proof that this sequence is correct. - N. J. A. Sloane, May 24 2007

STATUS

approved

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Last modified October 20 17:24 EDT 2018. Contains 316392 sequences. (Running on oeis4.)